Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Detect Rhythmic Groups in Music, but Not the Beat
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{"title"=>"Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Detect Rhythmic Groups in Music, but Not the Beat", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Henkjan", "last_name"=>"Honing", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603233047"}, {"first_name"=>"Hugo", "last_name"=>"Merchant", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007058906"}, {"first_name"=>"Gábor P.", "last_name"=>"Háden", "scopus_author_id"=>"18834986400"}, {"first_name"=>"Luis", "last_name"=>"Prado", "scopus_author_id"=>"25028713700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ramón", "last_name"=>"Bartolo", "scopus_author_id"=>"25026741800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84871183632", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0051369", "pui"=>"366284995", "pmid"=>"23251509", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871183632", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"35d9b34c-be04-34f5-91dc-a3b796856e05", "abstract"=>"It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the ‘downbeat’; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-detect-rhythmic-groups-music-not-beat", "reader_count"=>126, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Arts and Humanities"=>10, "Philosophy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>17, "Psychology"=>48, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Linguistics"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>48}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>17}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>3, "Austria"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Philippines"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527594"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Mean amplitudes (µV) are indicated with <i>SE</i> values in parentheses. S: values for standard stimuli; D: values for deviant stimuli; Subscript indicates tone frequency in Hz; number of epochs (n) are indicated in parentheses. The time windows adopted are 59–109 ms for monkey A and 61–111 ms for monkey Y (See Methods).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amplitudes", "standard-", "deviant-waves", "scalp"], "article_id"=>198086, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Henkjan Honing", "Hugo Merchant", "Gábor P. Háden", "Luis Prado", "Ramón Bartolo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_amplitudes_of_standard_and_deviant_waves_for_each_condition_and_scalp_position_Experiment_1_/198086", "title"=>"Mean amplitudes of standard- and deviant-waves for each condition and scalp position (Experiment 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:54:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527565"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Mean amplitudes (µV) are indicated with <i>SE</i> values in parentheses. S<sub>1–4</sub>: values for standard stimuli; D: values for deviant stimuli; D<sub>control:</sub> values for deviant- control stimuli; n: number of epochs. The time windows adopted are 105–155 ms for monkey A and 73–123 ms for monkey Y (See Methods).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amplitudes", "standard-", "deviant-", "scalp"], "article_id"=>198056, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Henkjan Honing", "Hugo Merchant", "Gábor P. Háden", "Luis Prado", "Ramón Bartolo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_amplitudes_of_standard_S_1_8211_4_deviant_D_and_8216_deviant_control_8217_waves_D_control_in_the_early_window_just_after_the_omission_for_each_stimulus_type_and_scalp_position_Experiment_3_/198056", "title"=>"Mean amplitudes of standard- (S<sub>1–4</sub>), deviant- (D), and ‘deviant-control’-waves (D<sub>control</sub>) in the early window (just after the omission) for each stimulus type and scalp position (Experiment 3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:54:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527211"], "description"=>"<p>Zero-aligned ERP responses for standard (S<sub>500</sub>, S<sub>1500</sub>) and deviant (D<sub>500</sub>, D<sub>1500</sub>) tones for monkey A and monkey Y. Stimulus positions are marked with rectangles; The gray-shaded areas indicate the time windows used in the statistical analysis (See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369#pone-0051369-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for details on the time ranges used).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["potentials", "cz"], "article_id"=>197706, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Henkjan Honing", "Hugo Merchant", "Gábor P. Háden", "Luis Prado", "Ramón Bartolo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Event_related_potentials_at_Cz_for_Experiment_1_/197706", "title"=>"Event-related potentials at Cz for Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:52:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526907"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic diagram of the rhythmic stimulus patterns used in Experiment 3 (Adapted from Honing <i>et al</i>., 2009).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "rhythmic", "patterns", "honing"], "article_id"=>197389, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Henkjan Honing", "Hugo Merchant", "Gábor P. Háden", "Luis Prado", "Ramón Bartolo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_diagram_of_the_rhythmic_stimulus_patterns_used_in_Experiment_3_Adapted_from_Honing_et_al_2009_/197389", "title"=>"Schematic diagram of the rhythmic stimulus patterns used in Experiment 3 (Adapted from Honing <i>et al</i>., 2009).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:50:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527317"], "description"=>"<p>Zero-aligned ERP responses for standard (tone) and deviant (omission) for monkey A and monkey Y. Stimulus positions are marked with rectangles; The gray-shaded areas indicate the time windows used in the statistical analysis (See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369#pone-0051369-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for details on the time ranges used).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["potentials", "cz"], "article_id"=>197809, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Henkjan Honing", "Hugo Merchant", "Gábor P. Háden", "Luis Prado", "Ramón Bartolo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Event_related_potentials_at_Cz_for_Experiment_2_/197809", "title"=>"Event-related potentials at Cz for Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:52:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527487"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Mean amplitudes (µV) are indicated with <i>SE</i> values in parentheses. S<sub>1–4</sub>: values for standard stimuli; D: values for deviant stimuli; D<sub>control:</sub> values for deviant- control stimuli; n: number of epochs. The time windows adopted are 214–264 ms for monkey A and 220–270 ms for monkey Y (See Methods).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amplitudes", "standard-", "deviant-", "scalp"], "article_id"=>197977, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Henkjan Honing", "Hugo Merchant", "Gábor P. Háden", "Luis Prado", "Ramón Bartolo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_amplitudes_of_standard_S_1_8211_4_deviant_D_and_8216_deviant_control_8217_waves_D_control_in_the_late_window_just_after_the_first_sound_for_each_stimulus_type_and_scalp_position_Experiment_3_/197977", "title"=>"Mean amplitudes of standard- (S<sub>1–4</sub>), deviant- (D), and ‘deviant-control’-waves (D<sub>control</sub>) in the late window (just after the first sound) for each stimulus type and scalp position (Experiment 3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:53:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527407"], "description"=>"<p>Omission-aligned ERP responses for the standard (S<sub>2</sub>–S<sub>4</sub>; solid blue line), deviant (D; solid red line), and deviant-control (D<sub>control</sub>; dashed red line). The standard without omission (S<sub>1</sub>; dotted black line) is shown zero-aligned with both deviants (D and D<sub>control</sub>) for comparison. The gray-shaded areas indicate the time windows used in the statistical analysis (See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369#pone-0051369-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369#pone-0051369-t004\" target=\"_blank\">4</a> for details on the time ranges used).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["potentials", "cz"], "article_id"=>197898, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Henkjan Honing", "Hugo Merchant", "Gábor P. Háden", "Luis Prado", "Ramón Bartolo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051369.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Event_related_potentials_at_Cz_for_Experiment_3_/197898", "title"=>"Event-related potentials at Cz for Experiment 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:53:17"}

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Relative Metric

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