Retinal Arterioles Narrow with Increasing Duration of Anti-Retroviral Therapy in HIV Infection: A Novel Estimator of Vascular Risk in HIV?
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{"title"=>"Retinal Arterioles Narrow with Increasing Duration of Anti-Retroviral Therapy in HIV Infection: A Novel Estimator of Vascular Risk in HIV?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sophia", "last_name"=>"Pathai", "scopus_author_id"=>"9943072800"}, {"first_name"=>"Helen A.", "last_name"=>"Weiss", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403112967"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen D.", "last_name"=>"Lawn", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006905471"}, {"first_name"=>"Tunde", "last_name"=>"Peto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005772831"}, {"first_name"=>"Leris M.", "last_name"=>"D'Costa", "scopus_author_id"=>"55520847300"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin", "last_name"=>"Cook", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402436134"}, {"first_name"=>"Tien Y.", "last_name"=>"Wong", "scopus_author_id"=>"35231271400"}, {"first_name"=>"Clare E.", "last_name"=>"Gilbert", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201382726"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23251521", "sgr"=>"84870903978", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0051405", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870903978", "pui"=>"366250879", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"a815ee29-a98a-3576-84d9-5541bb91f1af", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of age-related morbidity mediated by immune dysfunction, atherosclerosis and inflammation. Changes in retinal vessel calibre may reflect cumulative structural damage arising from these mechanisms. The relationship of retinal vessel calibre with clinical and demographic characteristics was investigated in a population of HIV-infected individuals in South Africa.\\n\\nMETHODS: Case-control study of 491 adults ≥30 years, composed of 242 HIV-infected adults and 249 age- and gender-matched HIV-negative controls. Retinal vessel calibre was measured using computer-assisted techniques to determine mean arteriolar and venular diameters of each eye.\\n\\nRESULTS: The median age was 40 years (IQR: 35-48 years). Among HIV-infected adults, 87.1% were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (median duration, 58 months), their median CD4 count was 468 cells/µL, and 84.3% had undetectable plasma viral load. Unadjusted mean retinal arteriolar diameters were 163.67±17.69 µm in cases and 161.34±17.38 µm in controls (p = 0.15). Unadjusted mean venular diameters were 267.77±18.21 µm in cases and 270.81±18.98 µm in controls (p = 0.07). Age modified the effect of retinal arteriolar and venular diameters in relation to HIV status, with a tendency towards narrower retinal diameters in HIV cases but not in controls. Among cases, retinal arteriolar diameters narrowed with increasing duration of HAART, independently of age (167.83 µm <3 years of HAART vs. 158.89 µm >6 years, p-trend = 0.02), and with a HIV viral load >10,000 copies/mL while on HAART (p = 0.05). HIV-related venular changes were not detected.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Narrowing of retinal arteriolar diameters is associated with HAART duration and viral load, and may reflect heightened inflammatory and pro-atherogenic states of the systemic vasculature. Measurement of retinal vascular calibre could be an innovative non-invasive method of estimating vascular risk in HIV-infected individuals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/retinal-arterioles-narrow-increasing-duration-antiretroviral-therapy-hiv-infection-novel-estimator-v", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/528993"], "description"=>"<p>Right: fundus with automated measurements (red = arterioles, blue = venules). Left: venular diameters output.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grading"], "article_id"=>199478, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sophia Pathai", "Helen A. Weiss", "Stephen D. Lawn", "Tunde Peto", "Leris M. D’Costa", "Colin Cook", "Tien Y. Wong", "Clare E. Gilbert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051405.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Retinal_vessel_grading_assessment_/199478", "title"=>"Retinal vessel grading assessment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:01:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529091"], "description"=>"*<p>VL = HIV RNA Viral load; NNRTI - non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor;</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics"], "article_id"=>199588, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sophia Pathai", "Helen A. Weiss", "Stephen D. Lawn", "Tunde Peto", "Leris M. D’Costa", "Colin Cook", "Tien Y. Wong", "Clare E. Gilbert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051405.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_characteristics_of_study_population_/199588", "title"=>"Demographic characteristics of study population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:02:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529173"], "description"=>"<p>Measurements are in µm and represent mean ± standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["calibre"], "article_id"=>199662, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sophia Pathai", "Helen A. Weiss", "Stephen D. Lawn", "Tunde Peto", "Leris M. D’Costa", "Colin Cook", "Tien Y. Wong", "Clare E. Gilbert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051405.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Retinal_vessel_calibre_in_study_population_/199662", "title"=>"Retinal vessel calibre in study population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:02:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/529213"], "description"=>"<p>Adjusted for age, gender, hypertension status, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), smoking status, BMI, diastolic BP, associate vessel diameter (i.e. CRVE for CRAE analyses, and CRAE for CRVE analyses), current CD4 count and nadir CD4 count, current VL and peak VL, HAART duration, HAART regimen, WHO clinical stage (1/2 or 3/4) and TB status (current or past history vs. no history).</p>*<p>P-value for test of trend.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diameters", "hiv-related", "factors"], "article_id"=>199702, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sophia Pathai", "Helen A. Weiss", "Stephen D. Lawn", "Tunde Peto", "Leris M. D’Costa", "Colin Cook", "Tien Y. Wong", "Clare E. Gilbert"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051405.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Retinal_vessel_diameters_in_association_to_HIV_related_factors_in_participants_on_HAART_/199702", "title"=>"Retinal vessel diameters in association to HIV-related factors in participants on HAART.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 19:03:09"}

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