Effects of Spearfishing on Reef Fish Populations in a Multi-Use Conservation Area
Publication Date
December 12, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Ashley J. Frisch, Andrew J. Cole, Jean Paul A. Hobbs, Justin R. Rizzari, et al
Volume
7
Issue
12
Pages
e51938
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0051938
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23251656
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3520892
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23251656
Web of Science
000313236200171
Scopus
84871190735
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-spearfishing-reef-fish-populations-multiuse-conservation-area
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Effects of Spearfishing on Reef Fish Populations in a Multi-Use Conservation Area", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ashley J.", "last_name"=>"Frisch", "scopus_author_id"=>"8587199400"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew J.", "last_name"=>"Cole", "scopus_author_id"=>"26026265800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Paul A.", "last_name"=>"Hobbs", "scopus_author_id"=>"8872807200"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin R.", "last_name"=>"Rizzari", "scopus_author_id"=>"55531058400"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine P.", "last_name"=>"Munkres", "scopus_author_id"=>"17344172800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871190735", "pui"=>"366284923", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0051938", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23251656", "arxiv"=>"arXiv:physics/0608246v3", "sgr"=>"84871190735"}, "id"=>"26aba03d-7300-3ff1-91b6-54463aa5d710", "abstract"=>"Although spearfishing is a popular method of capturing fish, its ecological effects on fish populations are poorly understood, which makes it difficult to assess the legitimacy and desirability of spearfishing in multi-use marine reserves. Recent management changes within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) fortuitously created a unique scenario by which to quantify the effects of spearfishing on fish populations. As such, we employed underwater visual surveys and a before-after-control-impact experimental design to investigate the effects of spearfishing on the density and size structure of target and non-target fishes in a multi-use conservation park zone (CPZ) within the GBRMP. Three years after spearfishing was first allowed in the CPZ, there was a 54% reduction in density and a 27% reduction in mean size of coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), the primary target species. These changes were attributed to spearfishing because benthic habitat characteristics and the density of non-target fishes were stable through time, and the density and mean size of coral trout in a nearby control zone (where spearfishing was prohibited) remained unchanged. We conclude that spearfishing, like other forms of fishing, can have rapid and substantial negative effects on target fish populations. Careful management of spearfishing is therefore needed to ensure that conservation obligations are achieved and that fishery resources are harvested sustainably. This is particularly important both for the GBRMP, due to its extraordinarily high conservation value and world heritage status, and for tropical island nations where people depend on spearfishing for food and income. To minimize the effects of spearfishing on target species and to enhance protection of functionally important fishes (herbivores), we recommend that fishery managers adjust output controls such as size- and catch-limits, rather than prohibit spearfishing altogether. This will preserve the cultural and social importance of spearfishing in coastal communities where it is practised.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-spearfishing-reef-fish-populations-multiuse-conservation-area", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>18, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>18}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526850"], "description"=>"a<p>Also shown are results of two-factor ANOVA of habitat indices. Data originate from 40 underwater visual transects per zone per year. Values are probabilities. d.f., degrees of freedom.</p>b<p>Data were transformed (<i>y</i> = Log<sub>10</sub>[<i>x</i>+1]) to homogenize variances.</p>c<p>d.f. = 1, 231.</p>d<p>d.f. = 2, 231.</p>e<p>d.f. = 1, 312.</p>f<p>d.f. = 3, 312.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["two-factor", "ancova", "comparing", "zones", "years", "indices"], "article_id"=>197339, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_two_factor_ANCOVA_comparing_fish_density_between_zones_control_versus_impact_and_between_years_2004_2009_with_habitat_indices_as_covariates_a_/197339", "title"=>"Results of two-factor ANCOVA comparing fish density between zones (control versus impact) and between years (2004–2009), with habitat indices as covariates<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:50:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527008"], "description"=>"a<p>Also shown are results of one-factor ANOVA of fish length in the no-fishing zone between years (2004–2009). Data originate from 40 underwater visual transects per zone per year. Values are probabilities with degrees of freedom in parentheses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["two-factor", "anova", "comparing", "zones", "years"], "article_id"=>197499, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_two_factor_ANOVA_comparing_fish_length_between_zones_control_and_impact_and_between_years_2004_2009_a_/197499", "title"=>"Results of two-factor ANOVA comparing fish length between zones (control and impact) and between years (2004–2009)<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:51:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526732"], "description"=>"<p>Data originate from 40 underwater visual transects per zone per year. The management history of each zone is described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938#pone-0051938-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. The <i>x</i>-axis labels are size-category midpoints. Minimum legal sizes of coral trout and stripey snapper are 38 and 25 cm total length respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "coral", "trout", "stripey"], "article_id"=>197224, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_frequency_distributions_of_coral_trout_and_stripey_snapper_/197224", "title"=>"Length-frequency distributions of coral trout and stripey snapper.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:49:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526888"], "description"=>"a<p>In addition to individual catch limits for each taxa, there is a combined catch limit of 20 for all coral reef fish <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938#pone.0051938-Anonymous1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>.</p>b<p>Bommie cod, a bycatch species, have a minimum legal size and catch limit by default under Queensland State law <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938#pone.0051938-Anonymous1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reef", "fishes", "archipelago", "spearfishers", "linefishers"], "article_id"=>197379, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Common_species_of_reef_fishes_at_the_Palm_archipelago_and_their_importance_to_spearfishers_and_linefishers_based_on_data_from_4_/197379", "title"=>"Common species of reef fishes at the Palm archipelago and their importance to spearfishers and linefishers (based on data from [4]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526444"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the Palm archipelago in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["archipelago", "reef"], "article_id"=>196930, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>53, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Palm_archipelago_in_the_Great_Barrier_Reef_Marine_Park_Australia_/196930", "title"=>"Map of the Palm archipelago in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:48:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526806"], "description"=>"a<p>Also shown are results of one-factor ANOVA of habitat indices. Data originate from 40 underwater visual transects per year (2004, 2005, 2007 and 2009). Values are probabilities. d.f., degrees of freedom.</p>b<p>Data were transformed (<i>y</i> = Log<sub>10</sub>[<i>x</i>+1]) to homogenize variances.</p>c<p>d.f. = 3, 156.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["one-factor", "ancova", "no-fishing", "indices"], "article_id"=>197296, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_one_factor_ANCOVA_of_fish_density_in_the_no_fishing_zone_with_habitat_indices_as_covariates_a_/197296", "title"=>"Results of one-factor ANCOVA of fish density in the no-fishing zone, with habitat indices as covariates<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:50:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526659"], "description"=>"<p>Data for the no-fishing zone are shown only for the purpose of comparison. The management history of each zone is described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938#pone-0051938-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Sample sizes for control, impact and no-fishing zones were 40–62, 17–68 and 53–94 respectively. Data originate from 40 underwater visual transects per zone per year. Groups with the same letters were not significantly different.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coral", "trout", "stripey", "snapper", "2004"], "article_id"=>197147, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_total_length_177_1SE_of_coral_trout_A_and_stripey_snapper_B_from_2004_to_2009_/197147", "title"=>"Mean total length (±1SE) of coral trout (A) and stripey snapper (B) from 2004 to 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:49:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526967"], "description"=>"a<p>Coral trout and stripey snapper were considered to be of legal size if their estimated TL was ≥40 and ≥25 cm, respectively. As there was a significant difference in fish density between years within the no-fishing zone, the data for 2009 were excluded from BACI analyses (to remove potential bias caused by Cyclone Hamish).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kruskal-wallace", "comparing", "legal-size", "coral", "trout", "stripey", "snapper"], "article_id"=>197451, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Kruskal_Wallace_tests_comparing_the_density_of_legal_size_coral_trout_and_stripey_snapper_between_years_a_/197451", "title"=>"Results of Kruskal-Wallace tests comparing the density of legal-size coral trout and stripey snapper between years<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:51:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526500"], "description"=>"<p>Arrows show the approximate locations of survey sites within ‘no-fishing’, ‘control’ and ‘impact’ zones. The no-fishing zone (north and east Orpheus Island) has been protected from all forms of fishing since 1987. The control zone (south-west Orpheus Island) has been protected from spearfishing since 1987. The impact zone (Palm Island) was protected from spearfishing from 1987 to 1 July 2004, but spearfishing was allowed from 1 July 2004 onwards. Linefishing was allowed at control and impact zones before and after 1 July 2004. For clarity, other multi-use management zones in the Palm archipelago are not shown (see <a href=\"http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au\" target=\"_blank\">www.gbrmpa.gov.au</a> for further information).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "zones", "july"], "article_id"=>196994, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maps_showing_the_spatial_arrangement_of_fishing_zones_before_A_and_after_B_1_July_2004_/196994", "title"=>"Maps showing the spatial arrangement of fishing zones before (A) and after (B) 1 July 2004.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:48:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526931"], "description"=>"a<p>Data originate from 40 underwater visual transects per zone per year.</p>b<p>Each size distribution was analyzed twice, first using a broad range of size categories (<i>k</i> = 5 after pooling) and second using only two size categories (c</p><p>A significant difference was considered to exist if <i>p</i><0.025, as per Bonferroni’s adjustment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["homogeneity", "comparing", "distributions", "coral", "trout", "stripey", "snapper", "zones", "years"], "article_id"=>197418, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_2_homogeneity_tests_comparing_size_distributions_of_coral_trout_and_stripey_snapper_in_no_fishing_control_and_impact_zones_between_years_2004_8211_2009_a_/197418", "title"=>"Results of χ<sup>2</sup> homogeneity tests comparing size distributions of coral trout and stripey snapper in no-fishing, control and impact zones between years (2004–2009)<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:50:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/526575"], "description"=>"<p>Data for the no-fishing zone are shown only for the purpose of comparison. The management history of each zone is described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938#pone-0051938-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Structural complexity was defined on a scale of zero to five (see text for definitions). Means were calculated from 40 samples (underwater visual transects) per zone per year. Groups with the same letters were not significantly different.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coral", "2004"], "article_id"=>197075, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ashley J. Frisch", "Andrew J. Cole", "Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Justin R. Rizzari", "Katherine P. Munkres"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051938.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_fish_density_A_E_coral_cover_F_G_and_structural_complexity_H_177_1SE_from_2004_to_2009_/197075", "title"=>"Mean fish density (A-E), coral cover (F, G) and structural complexity (H) (±1SE) from 2004 to 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 18:49:03"}

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Relative Metric

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