Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Adhesion Is Enhanced by Exposure to the Ubiquitous Dietary Polysaccharide Maltodextrin
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Adhesion Is Enhanced by Exposure to the Ubiquitous Dietary Polysaccharide Maltodextrin", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kourtney P.", "last_name"=>"Nickerson", "scopus_author_id"=>"52264406500"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine", "last_name"=>"McDonald", "scopus_author_id"=>"9845494000"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871240431", "pui"=>"366284919", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052132", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84871240431", "pmid"=>"23251695"}, "id"=>"d11c0ca0-ac78-3bd2-82bd-0561f6888d21", "abstract"=>"Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis evidenced by an altered microbiome forming thick biofilms on the epithelium. Additionally, adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) strains are frequently isolated from ileal lesions of CD patients indicating a potential role for these strains in disease pathogenesis. The composition and characteristics of the host microbiome are influenced by environmental factors, particularly diet. Polysaccharides added to food as emulsifiers, stabilizers or bulking agents have been linked to bacteria-associated intestinal disorders. The escalating consumption of polysaccharides in Western diets parallels an increased incidence of CD during the latter 20(th) century. In this study, the effect of a polysaccharide panel on adhesiveness of the CD-associated AIEC strain LF82 was analyzed to determine if these food additives promote disease-associated bacterial phenotypes. Maltodextrin (MDX), a polysaccharide derived from starch hydrolysis, markedly enhanced LF82 specific biofilm formation. Biofilm formation of multiple other E. coli strains was also promoted by MDX. MDX-induced E. coli biofilm formation was independent of polysaccharide chain length indicating a requirement for MDX metabolism. MDX exposure induced type I pili expression, which was required for MDX-enhanced biofilm formation. MDX also increased bacterial adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers in a mechanism dependent on type 1 pili and independent of the cellular receptor CEACAM6, suggesting a novel mechanism of epithelial cell adhesion. Analysis of mucosa-associated bacteria from individuals with and without CD showed increased prevalence of malX, a gene essential for MDX metabolism, uniquely in the ileum of CD patients. These findings demonstrate that the ubiquitous dietary component MDX enhances E. coli adhesion and suggests a mechanism by which Western diets rich in specific polysaccharides may promote dysbiosis of gut microbes and contribute to disease susceptibility.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/crohns-diseaseassociated-adherentinvasive-escherichia-coli-adhesion-enhanced-exposure-ubiquitous-die", "reader_count"=>112, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>22, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>22}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>15}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Slovenia"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84871240431"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84871240431?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84871240431&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84871240431&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84871240431", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84871240431", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84871240431", "dc:title"=>"Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Adhesion Is Enhanced by Exposure to the Ubiquitous Dietary Polysaccharide Maltodextrin", "dc:creator"=>"Nickerson K.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"12", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-12-12", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"12 December 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052132", "citedby-count"=>"53", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Cleveland Clinic Foundation", "affiliation-city"=>"Cleveland", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Case Western Reserve University", "affiliation-city"=>"Cleveland", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23251695", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e52132", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0052132", "share_count"=>1, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>1}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"101", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"610"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"180"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"77", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"64", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"69", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"61", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"111", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"153"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"55", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"64", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"90", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"114"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"69", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"161"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"174"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"87", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"213", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"90", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"262", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"57", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"360"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"180"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"118"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"161"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"165"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"114", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"118"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"95", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"156", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"256", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"217", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527822"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Adhesion of LF82 to Caco2 monolayers. (B) Immunofluorescent confocal micrographs of LF82 adhered to Caco2 monolayers. Green = LF82, blue = nuclei (C) Adhesion of LF82 to HT29 monolayers. (D) Immunofluorescent confocal micrographs of LF82 adhered to HT29 monolayers. Green = LF82, blue = nuclei (E) Intracellular LF82 recovered from HT29 monolayers. (F) Immunofluorescent confocal micrographs demonstrating the localization of LF82 (red) on the surface of HT29 cells (green). Nuclei  =  blue. Average ±SD shown. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 relative to glucose.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["selectively", "enhances", "lf82", "adhesion", "intestinal", "epithelial"], "article_id"=>198313, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MDX_selectively_enhances_LF82_adhesion_to_intestinal_epithelial_cell_lines_/198313", "title"=>"MDX selectively enhances LF82 adhesion to intestinal epithelial cell lines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:18:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527703"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Scanning electron micrographs of LF82 biofilms. Arrowheads indicate bacteria-plastic (white) or inter-bacterial (black) adhesins. (B) Assessment of the LF82 <i>fim</i> operon by PCR to determine type 1 pili expression. (C) Specific biofilm formation of LF82 in the presence or absence of 2% mannose. (D) Micrographs of crystal violet stained biofilms from C. (E) Specific biofilm formation of LF82 and isogenic mutant strains. (F) Micrographs of crystal violet stained biofilms from E. Average ±SD shown. *p<0.05, **p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["increases", "biofilm"], "article_id"=>198202, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MDX_increases_biofilm_formation_via_type_1_pili_/198202", "title"=>"MDX increases biofilm formation via type 1 pili.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:16:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527545"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Specific biofilm formation of a panel of <i>E. coli</i> strains. (B) Micrographs of crystal violet stained biofilms from A. (C) Specific biofilm formation of LF82 in medium supplemented with MDX of different chain lengths. (D) Micrographs of crystal violet stained biofilms from C. Average ±SD shown. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, n.d. = none detected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biofilm", "strains", "mdx"], "article_id"=>198052, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MDX_promotes_biofilm_formation_of_multiple_E_coli_strains_in_a_process_dependent_on_MDX_metabolism_/198052", "title"=>"MDX promotes biofilm formation of multiple <i>E. coli</i> strains in a process dependent on MDX metabolism.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:14:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284091", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284216", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/284265"], "description"=>"<div><p>Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis evidenced by an altered microbiome forming thick biofilms on the epithelium. Additionally, adherent-invasive <em>E. coli</em> (AIEC) strains are frequently isolated from ileal lesions of CD patients indicating a potential role for these strains in disease pathogenesis. The composition and characteristics of the host microbiome are influenced by environmental factors, particularly diet. Polysaccharides added to food as emulsifiers, stabilizers or bulking agents have been linked to bacteria-associated intestinal disorders. The escalating consumption of polysaccharides in Western diets parallels an increased incidence of CD during the latter 20<sup>th</sup> century. In this study, the effect of a polysaccharide panel on adhesiveness of the CD-associated AIEC strain LF82 was analyzed to determine if these food additives promote disease-associated bacterial phenotypes. Maltodextrin (MDX), a polysaccharide derived from starch hydrolysis, markedly enhanced LF82 specific biofilm formation. Biofilm formation of multiple other <em>E. coli</em> strains was also promoted by MDX. MDX-induced <em>E. coli</em> biofilm formation was independent of polysaccharide chain length indicating a requirement for MDX metabolism. MDX exposure induced type I pili expression, which was required for MDX-enhanced biofilm formation. MDX also increased bacterial adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers in a mechanism dependent on type 1 pili and independent of the cellular receptor CEACAM6, suggesting a novel mechanism of epithelial cell adhesion. Analysis of mucosa-associated bacteria from individuals with and without CD showed increased prevalence of <em>malX</em>, a gene essential for MDX metabolism, uniquely in the ileum of CD patients. These findings demonstrate that the ubiquitous dietary component MDX enhances <em>E. coli</em> adhesion and suggests a mechanism by which Western diets rich in specific polysaccharides may promote dysbiosis of gut microbes and contribute to disease susceptibility.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disease-associated", "adherent-invasive", "adhesion", "enhanced", "ubiquitous", "dietary", "polysaccharide", "maltodextrin"], "article_id"=>116006, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Crohn_s_Disease_Associated_Adherent_Invasive_Escherichia_coli_Adhesion_Is_Enhanced_by_Exposure_to_the_Ubiquitous_Dietary_Polysaccharide_Maltodextrin__/116006", "title"=>"Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive <em>Escherichia coli</em> Adhesion Is Enhanced by Exposure to the Ubiquitous Dietary Polysaccharide Maltodextrin", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 01:40:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/528052"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Immunoblots of CEACAM6 expression. (B) Adhesion of LF82 to Caco2 cell lines stably expressing shRNAs. Average ±SD shown. **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 relative to glucose. (C) Immunoblots of CEACAM6 expression. (D) Immunoflurescent confocal micrographs of LF82 adhered to Caco2 cells used in B. Green = LF82, blue = nuclei.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lf82", "adhesion", "epithelial", "cells", "occurs"], "article_id"=>198548, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MDX_enhanced_LF82_adhesion_to_epithelial_cells_occurs_via_a_mechanism_independent_of_CEACAM6_/198548", "title"=>"MDX-enhanced LF82 adhesion to epithelial cells occurs via a mechanism independent of CEACAM6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/528140"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Prevalence of the <i>malX</i> gene normalized to total <i>Eubacterial</i> DNA (<i>Eub</i>) amplified from mucosal samples by qPCR. (B) Prevalence of <i>E. coli</i> 16S DNA (<i>E. coli</i>) as measured in A. Mean indicated with bar. *p<0.0175.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevalent", "mucosa", "ileal"], "article_id"=>198638, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacteria_with_the_malX_gene_are_more_prevalent_in_the_mucosa_of_ileal_CD_/198638", "title"=>"Bacteria with the <i>malX</i> gene are more prevalent in the mucosa of ileal CD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:23:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/528193"], "description"=>"<p>Bacterial strains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "microbiology", "Gastroenterology and hepatology"], "article_id"=>198692, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_strains_/198692", "title"=>"Bacterial strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:24:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527444"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Growth curves of LF82 grown in medium supplemented with the indicated polysaccharide or sugar. (B) Specific biofilm formation of LF82. Average ±SD shown. **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, n.d. = none detected (C) Micrographs of LF82 biofilms from B stained with Congo red to detect exopolysaccharide formation (pink) with bacteria counterstained with carbol fusion (blue).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhances", "biofilm"], "article_id"=>197943, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MDX_strongly_enhances_E_coli_biofilm_formation_/197943", "title"=>"MDX strongly enhances <i>E. coli</i> biofilm formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:12:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527969"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Adhesion of LF82 to HT29 monolayers pre-incubated with 2% mannose. (B) Adhesion of LF82 isogenic mutants to HT29 monolayers. Average ±SD shown. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 relative to glucose.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhances", "epithelial", "adhesion", "pili-dependent"], "article_id"=>198468, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MDX_enhances_epithelial_cell_adhesion_in_a_type_1_pili_dependent_manner_/198468", "title"=>"MDX enhances epithelial cell adhesion in a type 1 pili-dependent manner.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:21:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/527901"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Total amount of Raw264.7 cell-associated LF82. (B) Intracellular LF82 recovered from Raw264.7 cells. (C) Immunofluorescent confocal micrographs of LF82 (red) infected Raw264.7 cells (green). Nuclei  =  blue. Average ±SD shown. **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 relative to glucose.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["selectively", "enhances", "lf82", "adhesion"], "article_id"=>198401, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Kourtney P. Nickerson", "Christine McDonald"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052132.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MDX_selectively_enhances_LF82_adhesion_to_Raw264_7_macrophages_/198401", "title"=>"MDX selectively enhances LF82 adhesion to Raw264.7 macrophages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-12 02:20:01"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"250", "full-text"=>"272", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"162", "full-text"=>"178", "pdf"=>"37", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"31", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"77", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[307, 540, 660, 756, 847, 936, 1025, 1111, 1199, 1282, 1361, 1432]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[316, 541, 663, 766, 856, 950, 1041, 1128, 1218, 1302, 1382, 1456, 1526, 1593, 1657, 1729, 1796, 1862, 1930, 1999, 2065, 2132, 2202, 2261, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[292, 539, 673, 776, 876, 986, 1099, 1210, 1305, 1390, 1476, 1560, 1633, 1726, 1813, 1903, 1969, 2024, 2082, 2153, 2235, 2301, 2366, 2432, 2495]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[348, 541, 638, 730, 827, 907, 993, 1074, 1152, 1232, 1310, 1379, 1442, 1507, 1576, 1648, 1715, 1786, 1854, 1926, 1991, 2059, 2125, 2181, 2249]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Microbial ecology", "average_usage"=>[340, 566, 698, 797, 900, 999, 1110, 1209, 1314, 1446, 1513, 1581, 1645]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[308, 539, 659, 759, 852, 941, 1028, 1113, 1197, 1275, 1353, 1423]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[328, 580, 713, 821, 914, 1012, 1107, 1202, 1293, 1381, 1477, 1551, 1633, 1694, 1769, 1847, 1917, 1986, 2056, 2121, 2194, 2267, 2329, 2410, 2461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[307, 546, 676, 780, 888, 986, 1099, 1202, 1282, 1376, 1468, 1552, 1627, 1713, 1774, 1875, 1944, 2011, 2079, 2133, 2210, 2282, 2358, 2422, 2480]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[321, 553, 683, 785, 880, 973, 1072, 1162, 1249, 1336, 1425, 1504, 1574, 1642, 1711, 1785, 1852, 1923, 1987, 2050, 2129, 2192, 2259, 2325, 2393]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts