Isolation of Salmonella Mutants Resistant to the Inhibitory Effect of Salicylidene acylhydrazides on Flagella-Mediated Motility
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{"title"=>"Isolation of Salmonella Mutants Resistant to the Inhibitory Effect of Salicylidene acylhydrazides on Flagella-Mediated Motility", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Isabel", "last_name"=>"Martinez-Argudo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801461516"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas K.J.", "last_name"=>"Veenendaal", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602815321"}, {"first_name"=>"Xia", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55541720700"}, {"first_name"=>"A. Dorothea", "last_name"=>"Roehrich", "scopus_author_id"=>"56405522000"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria C.", "last_name"=>"Ronessen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55541443000"}, {"first_name"=>"Giulia", "last_name"=>"Franzoni", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200733667"}, {"first_name"=>"Katerine N.", "last_name"=>"van Rietschoten", "scopus_author_id"=>"55542809000"}, {"first_name"=>"Yusuke V.", "last_name"=>"Morimoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"35093011600"}, {"first_name"=>"Yumiko", "last_name"=>"Saijo-Hamano", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506204206"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew B.", "last_name"=>"Avison", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005876020"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.", "last_name"=>"Studholme", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603689075"}, {"first_name"=>"Keiichi", "last_name"=>"Namba", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103162863"}, {"first_name"=>"Tohru", "last_name"=>"Minamino", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006391123"}, {"first_name"=>"Ariel J.", "last_name"=>"Blocker", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603633795"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368034737", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052179", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871793328", "pmid"=>"23300965", "sgr"=>"84871793328"}, "id"=>"534ab42f-d954-3db8-8ab6-5186e669be2b", "abstract"=>"Salicylidene acylhydrazides identified as inhibitors of virulence-mediating type III secretion systems (T3SSs) potentially target their inner membrane export apparatus. They also lead to inhibition of flagellar T3SS-mediated swimming motility in Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhimurium. We show that INP0404 and INP0405 act by reducing the number of flagella/cell. These molecules still inhibit motility of a Salmonella DeltafliH-fliI-fliJ/flhB((P28T)) strain, which lacks three soluble components of the flagellar T3S apparatus, suggesting that they are not the target of this drug family. We implemented a genetic screen to search for the inhibitors' molecular target(s) using motility assays in the DeltafliH-fliI/flhB((P28T)) background. Both mutants identified were more motile than the background strain in the absence of the drugs, although HM18 was considerably more so. HM18 was more motile than its parent strain in the presence of both drugs while DI15 was only insensitive to INP0405. HM18 was hypermotile due to hyperflagellation, whereas DI15 was not hyperflagellated. HM18 was also resistant to a growth defect induced by high concentrations of the drugs. Whole-genome resequencing of HM18 indicated two alterations within protein coding regions, including one within atpB, which encodes the inner membrane a-subunit of the F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase. Reverse genetics indicated that the alteration in atpB was responsible for all of HM18's phenotypes. Genome sequencing of DI15 uncovered a single A562P mutation within a gene encoding the flagellar inner membrane protein FlhA, the direct role of which in mediating drug insensitivity could not be confirmed. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of T3SS export apparatus function and drug target identification.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/isolation-salmonella-mutants-resistant-inhibitory-effect-salicylidene-acylhydrazides-flagellamediate", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514768"], "description"=>"<p>The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane (<i>CM</i>) is shown in dark gray blocks. <i>Peri</i> stands for periplasmic face and <i>Cyto</i> for cytoplasmic face. The names components that are functionally and/or structurally related between the two complexes (as described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Discussion</a>) are outlined in black and share similar colours and/or shapes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["schematic", "bacterial", "flagellar", "apparatus"], "article_id"=>185250, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_schematic_representation_of_the_bacterial_flagellar_export_apparatus_and_F_O_F_1_ATPase_/185250", "title"=>"Comparative schematic representation of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus and F<sub>O</sub>/F<sub>1</sub> ATPase.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:43:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514214"], "description"=>"<p>Motility assays were performed for the indicated strains in the position displayed on the circle above the plate photographs and using DMSO alone or the compounds indicated on the left. An experiment representative of two independent ones is shown. When the motility of Δ<i>fliHI/flhB*</i> and Δ<i>fliHIJ/flhB*</i> was expressed as a ratio of their motility in either drug relative to DMSO, the average values obtained were 0.69 and 0.73, respectively, for INP0404 and 0.65 and 0.61, respectively, for INP0405.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inp0404", "inp0405", "motility", "weakly", "motile", "typhimurium", "strains", "lacking", "subunits", "cytoplasmic", "flagellar"], "article_id"=>184677, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_INP0404_and_INP0405_on_motility_of_weakly_motile_Salmonella_Typhimurium_strains_lacking_subunits_of_the_cytoplasmic_portion_of_the_flagellar_export_apparatus_/184677", "title"=>"Effect of INP0404 and INP0405 on motility of weakly motile <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium strains lacking subunits of the cytoplasmic portion of the flagellar export apparatus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:40:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514096"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Motility of <i>Salmonella</i> in soft agar plates containing the compounds indicated, or the compound solvent DMSO as a control. An experiment representative of three repeats is shown. <b>B</b>) Electron microscopy analysis of flagella numbers on the surface of <i>Salmonella</i> exposed to INP0404, INP0405, INP0406 or DMSO. Three independent experiments were performed. For each sample and on each experiment 20–50 cells were scored and average number of flagella determined. In view of the variability of the numbers obtained from day to day, the data were normalised to the average number of flagella counted in the sample exposed to DMSO. These numbers were 4.1 (CI +/−1.5), 9.0 (CI +/−2.7) and 5.5 (CI +/−1.1) for experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Lines represent the mean number for each condition. Using Poisson regression analysis of non-normalised data, INP0404 overall significantly reduced the number of flagella/cell (p<0.05). For INP0405, only experiments 2 and 3 showed significant reductions in the number of flagella/cell (p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inp", "salicylidene", "acylhydrazides", "compounds", "motility", "flagella", "numbers", "wild-type", "serovar", "typhimurium"], "article_id"=>184553, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_selected_INP_salicylidene_acylhydrazides_compounds_on_motility_and_flagella_numbers_in_wild_type_Salmonella_enterica_serovar_Typhimurium_SWJ1103_/184553", "title"=>"Effect of selected INP salicylidene acylhydrazides compounds on motility and flagella numbers in wild-type <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovar Typhimurium SWJ1103.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:39:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514969"], "description"=>"a<p>Defined by whole-genome Illumina sequencing and comparison to the <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium LT2 chromosome (RefSeq:NC_003197) and the 100-Kb plasmid pSLT (RefSeq:NC_003277). No differences were found between the plasmid of the LT2 reference and the two test strains.</p>b<p>Note that this mutation (but no other) was also found in HM16 and DI13, which are not further described here, but not in Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*. We thus assume it to be phenotypically silent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genomic"], "article_id"=>185454, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_results_of_genomic_analysis_performed_/185454", "title"=>"Summary of results of genomic analysis performed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:44:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514368"], "description"=>"<p>Quantitative motility assays were performed for the isolated mutants in the presence of <b>A</b>) INP0404 and <b>B</b>) INP0405. The motility of each strain is expressed as a ratio of its motility in either drug relative to DMSO. Dots represent individual colonies. Lines represent means. For INP0404, an Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a difference between groups (p = 0.0017) and a Dunn's post-test indicated that only HM18 (p<0.001) was significantly more motile than Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*. For INP0405, a Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a difference between groups (p<0.0001) and a Dunn's post-test indicated that HM18 (p<0.001) and DI15 (p<0.05) were significantly more motile than Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motility", "hm18", "di15", "inp0404", "inp0405"], "article_id"=>184848, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitation_of_motility_of_HM18_and_DI15_in_INP0404_and_INP0405_relative_to_fliHI_flhB_/184848", "title"=>"Quantitation of motility of HM18 and DI15 in INP0404 and INP0405 relative to Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:41:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514591"], "description"=>"<p>Strain Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*, DI15 and HM18 were grown to late exponential phase in the presence of DMSO, or 50 µM INP0404 or INP0405 and normalised for OD<sub>600</sub>. Cultures were separated into cell <i>pellet</i> and culture <i>supernatant</i> by centrifugation, followed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with anti-FliC (flagellin, <i>top</i>) and anti-SipC (SPI1 T3SS effector, <i>bottom</i>) antibodies. A representative experiment is shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["di15", "hm18", "backgrounds", "flagellar", "virulence-related"], "article_id"=>185074, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_the_DI15_and_HM18_backgrounds_on_the_function_of_flagellar_and_virulence_related_T3SSs_/185074", "title"=>"Influence of the DI15 and HM18 backgrounds on the function of flagellar and virulence-related T3SSs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:42:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514849"], "description"=>"a<p>The areas underlined correspond to restriction enzyme sites used and the base underlined and bold is the where the SNC is located that generates <i>flhA</i><sub>A562P</sub>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["primers"], "article_id"=>185334, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_primers_used_in_this_study_a_/185334", "title"=>"List of primers used in this study<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:43:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514933"], "description"=>"<p>List of strains and plasmids used in this work.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strains", "plasmids"], "article_id"=>185417, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_strains_and_plasmids_used_in_this_work_/185417", "title"=>"List of strains and plasmids used in this work.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:44:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514885"], "description"=>"a<p>The growth rates of the strains were measured in the presence of the indicated amount of INP0404 or an equivalent volume of the drug solvent DMSO and the data processed as outlined in the Materials and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>. Expressed as maximal growth rate (OD<sub>600</sub>/hr). Values given are averages of three independent experiments. Errors are standard deviations.</p>b<p>Growth rates of Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* where <i>atpB</i> has been replaced by <i>atpB</i> wild-type (chr <i>atpB</i> WT) or <i>atpB</i> carrying the mutation found in HM18 (chr <i>atpB</i> mut) within the chromosome.</p>c<p>Where indicated, the strains were grown in the presence of 0.4% glucose (w/v).</p>d<p>Not assessed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "mutants", "strains"], "article_id"=>185368, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_rates_of_various_mutants_and_strains_under_different_conditions_a_/185368", "title"=>"Growth rates of various mutants and strains under different conditions<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:44:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514502"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Deletion of <i>atpB</i> but not <i>fadB</i> leads to hypermotility in the Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* background. Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*, Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* Δ<i>atpB</i> and Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* Δ<i>fadB</i> were stabbed into motility agar and incubated at 30°C for 16–18 hr. A representative experiment is shown. <b>B</b>) Extrachromosomal complementation of Δ<i>atpB</i> with wild-type but not mutant <i>atpB</i> restores weak motility to Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*. Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* Δ<i>atpB</i> and Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* Δ<i>atpB</i> complemented with <i>atpB</i> wild-type (<i>atpB</i> WT) or <i>atpB</i> carrying the mutation found in HM18 (<i>atpB</i> mut) on a low copy plasmid were stabbed into motility agar along side Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* and incubated at 30°C for 16–18 hr. A representative experiment is shown. Although Δ<i>fliHI</i>/<i>flhB*</i> Δ<i>atpB</i>/p<i>atpB</i> mut appears somewhat more opaque than the equivalently hypermotile Δ<i>fliHI</i>/<i>flhB*</i> Δ<i>atpB</i>, both it and Δ<i>fliHI</i>/<i>flhB*</i> Δ<i>atpB</i>/p<i>atpB</i> wt (which is not hypermotile) had similar growth defects in liquid culture. This suggests that their growth defects may be or appear somewhat different in motility medium. <b>C</b>) Chromosomal replacement of <i>atpB</i> by mutant and wild type <i>atpB</i> in Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* both lead to hypermotility. Motility analysis for the same two strains in comparison to HM18 and Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*. The plate was incubated at 30°C for 16–18 hr. A representative experiment is shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hypermotility"], "article_id"=>184986, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_the_role_of_atpB_and_fadB_in_the_hypermotility_of_HM18_/184986", "title"=>"Analysis of the role of <i>atpB</i> and <i>fadB</i> in the hypermotility of HM18.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:41:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514281"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) An example of the types of motility fronts obtained using the line method as described in the Materials & <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>. 0.4% agar plates were incubated for 3 days at 30°C. Note that leading edges of the fronts are smooth in the DMSO plate and ragged in the drug containing plates. In the latter, two types zones are seen at the edges, some translucent ones (<i>white arrow pointing upwards</i>) and some opaque (<i>white arrow point downwards</i>) ones, which are more similar to the rest of the front. Samples from both types of edge zones were taken for mutant isolation. <b>B</b>) Phenotypes of triply re-isolated mutants. Names of strains and mutants are indicated on the circle above the plates. Those that came from opaque (<i>left</i>) and translucent (<i>right</i>) areas of motility fronts were often DI and HM, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["resistant", "mutants"], "article_id"=>184765, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Isolation_of_drug_resistant_mutants_from_fliH_fliI_flhB_/184765", "title"=>"Isolation of drug resistant mutants from Δ<i>fliH</i>-<i>fliI</i>/<i>flhB*</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:40:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514441"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Quantitative motility assays of each mutant relative to Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* in the presence of DMSO. Dots represent individual colonies. Lines represent means. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a difference between groups (p = 0.0001) and a Dunn's post-test indicated that both mutant strains were significantly more motile than Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* (p<0.001). <b>B</b>) Number of flagella for Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>*, HM15 and DI15. The display purposes, the data from two independent experiments were pooled. Lines represent means. Using Poisson regression analysis of unpooled data, HM18 had an overall significantly increased number of flagella/cell (p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flagellar", "numbers"], "article_id"=>184926, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypermotility_and_flagellar_numbers_for_isolated_mutants_/184926", "title"=>"Hypermotility and flagellar numbers for isolated mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514703"], "description"=>"<p>Whole cell extracts of Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* carrying or not the chromosomal deletion in <i>atpB</i>, grown to mid-exponential phase in the presence of DMSO, or 50 µM INP0404 or INP0405 and normalised for OD<sub>600</sub>, were separated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotted with an anti-FlhA antiserum. No difference in FlhA level was observed under any of the conditions tested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flha"], "article_id"=>185183, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Isabel Martinez-Argudo", "Andreas K. J. Veenendaal", "Xia Liu", "A. Dorothea Roehrich", "Maria C. Ronessen", "Giulia Franzoni", "Katerine N. van Rietschoten", "Yusuke V. Morimoto", "Yumiko Saijo-Hamano", "Matthew B. Avison", "David J. Studholme", "Keiichi Namba", "Tohru Minamino", "Ariel J. Blocker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052179.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurement_of_FlhA_expression_in_fliHI_flhB_under_different_conditions_/185183", "title"=>"Measurement of FlhA expression in Δ<i>fliHI/flhB</i>* under different conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:42:56"}

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Relative Metric

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