Muscle Activity and Inactivity Periods during Normal Daily Life
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{"title"=>"Muscle Activity and Inactivity Periods during Normal Daily Life", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Olli", "last_name"=>"Tikkanen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603305197"}, {"first_name"=>"Piia", "last_name"=>"Haakana", "scopus_author_id"=>"55085668300"}, {"first_name"=>"Arto J.", "last_name"=>"Pesola", "scopus_author_id"=>"54783349200"}, {"first_name"=>"Keijo", "last_name"=>"Häkkinen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005347877"}, {"first_name"=>"Timo", "last_name"=>"Rantalainen", "scopus_author_id"=>"23135663200"}, {"first_name"=>"Marko", "last_name"=>"Havu", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602505093"}, {"first_name"=>"Teemu", "last_name"=>"Pullinen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602355461"}, {"first_name"=>"Taija", "last_name"=>"Finni", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701805998"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84872534911", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052228", "pui"=>"368151001", "pmid"=>"23349681", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872534911", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"01ee3eea-747a-359d-8657-bf3c0d44f307", "abstract"=>"Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC)) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC)). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC) (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC)). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC) than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/muscle-activity-inactivity-periods-during-normal-daily-life", "reader_count"=>101, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>14, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>7, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>25, "Sports and Recreations"=>27, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>25}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>27}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>14}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Finland"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504911"], "description"=>"<p>Significant difference between genders are expressed as</p>*<p>p<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["indicators", "women", "men", "presented", "isometric", "mvc"], "article_id"=>175424, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EMG_volume_and_rate_indicators_from_normal_daily_life_for_women_and_men_presented_relative_to_isometric_MVC_177_SD_/175424", "title"=>"EMG volume and rate indicators from normal daily life for women and men presented relative to isometric MVC (±SD).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:49:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504763"], "description"=>"<p>Significant difference between genders are expressed as</p>**<p>p<0.01;</p>***<p>p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics"], "article_id"=>175277, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basic_characteristics_of_the_subjects_/175277", "title"=>"Basic characteristics of the subjects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:49:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504578"], "description"=>"<p>Average (±SD) quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity for different daily tasks measured in the laboratory (n = 63–84).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["public health and epidemiology", "physiology", "women's health"], "article_id"=>175089, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_muscle_activity_in_daily_tasks_/175089", "title"=>"Average muscle activity in daily tasks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:48:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504461"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of averaged EMG data of left quadriceps femoris from one subject. Part A shows from the laboratory measurement session MVC of knee extension, lying down, standing still and squatting. Part B shows EMG activity during the entire day. Part C shows zoomed areas from daily EMG data (thick vertical lines show which parts of the data are zoomed). Horizontal lines represent baseline and 100% of EMG<sub>MVC</sub>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emg"], "article_id"=>174978, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_EMG_data_from_laboratory_and_field_measurements_/174978", "title"=>"Example EMG data from laboratory and field measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:47:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504794"], "description"=>"<p>The first row represents results using individually determined threshold below standing activity (mean of four muscle groups) that is compared to the absolute % levels of each individual's EMG amplitude during maximal voluntary contraction (EMG<sub>MVC</sub>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["times"], "article_id"=>175312, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inactivity_times_during_normal_daily_life_based_on_different_thresholds_/175312", "title"=>"Inactivity times during normal daily life based on different thresholds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:49:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504375"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic drawing depicting analysis of burst amplitude, duration, inactivity periods and differentiation to light, moderate and vigorous muscle activities. The thresholds for inactivity, light, moderate and vigorous activities were determined individually (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics"], "article_id"=>174882, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_burst_characteristics_and_muscle_activities_/174882", "title"=>"Analysis of burst characteristics and muscle activities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:47:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504875"], "description"=>"<p>Time expressed as percentage from total measurement time and as minutes and seconds.</p><p>Significant difference between genders are expressed as</p>*<p>p<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spent", "emg", "intensities", "isometric", "women"], "article_id"=>175384, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_spent_at_different_EMG_intensities_relative_to_isometric_MVC_in_normal_daily_life_for_women_and_men_/175384", "title"=>"Time spent at different EMG intensities (relative to isometric MVC) in normal daily life for women and men.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:49:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504674"], "description"=>"<p>A) Time spent at different muscle activity levels during normal daily life based on individual threshold values (2.5±1.7, 6.3±3.7 and 14.2±8.8% EMG<sub>MVC</sub> for inactivity, moderate activity and vigorous activity thresholds, respectively). Each line represents one individual (n = 84). B) Duration of mean (±SD) quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity at different intensities did not differ between males (n = 40) and females (n = 44) during an 11 hour measurement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels"], "article_id"=>175190, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Muscle_activity_levels_during_normal_daily_life_/175190", "title"=>"Muscle activity levels during normal daily life.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:48:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504838"], "description"=>"<p>Average EMG activities at different thresholds that were defined from the standing and incremental treadmill walking test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emg", "activities", "thresholds", "defined", "incremental", "treadmill"], "article_id"=>175347, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Olli Tikkanen", "Piia Haakana", "Arto J. Pesola", "Keijo Häkkinen", "Timo Rantalainen", "Marko Havu", "Teemu Pullinen", "Taija Finni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052228.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_EMG_activities_at_different_thresholds_that_were_defined_from_the_standing_and_incremental_treadmill_walking_test_/175347", "title"=>"Average EMG activities at different thresholds that were defined from the standing and incremental treadmill walking test.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:49:33"}

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Relative Metric

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