Implications of Diet for the Extinction of Saber-Toothed Cats and American Lions
Publication Date
December 26, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Larisa R. G. De Santis, Blaine W. Schubert, Jessica R. Scott & Peter S. Ungar
Volume
7
Issue
12
Pages
e52453
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0052453
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300674
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530457
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23300674
Web of Science
000313618800089
Scopus
84871585716
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/implications-diet-extinction-sabertoothed-cats-american-lions
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Implications of Diet for the Extinction of Saber-Toothed Cats and American Lions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Larisa R.G.", "last_name"=>"DeSantis", "scopus_author_id"=>"16199554200"}, {"first_name"=>"Blaine W.", "last_name"=>"Schubert", "scopus_author_id"=>"8243875200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica R.", "last_name"=>"Scott", "scopus_author_id"=>"7407334065"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter S.", "last_name"=>"Ungar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004160196"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871585716", "sgr"=>"84871585716", "pui"=>"366343740", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23300674", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052453"}, "id"=>"b71b2bfe-e6d2-3c61-9d40-4805ba6e7c50", "abstract"=>"The saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, and American lion, Panthera atrox, were among the largest terrestrial carnivores that lived during the Pleistocene, going extinct along with other megafauna ∼12,000 years ago. Previous work suggests that times were difficult at La Brea (California) during the late Pleistocene, as nearly all carnivores have greater incidences of tooth breakage (used to infer greater carcass utilization) compared to today. As Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA) can differentiate between levels of bone consumption in extant carnivores, we use DMTA to clarify the dietary niches of extinct carnivorans from La Brea. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that times were tough at La Brea with carnivorous taxa utilizing more of the carcasses. Our results show no evidence of bone crushing by P. atrox, with DMTA attributes most similar to the extant cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, which actively avoids bone. In contrast, S. fatalis has DMTA attributes most similar to the African lion Panthera leo, implying that S. fatalis did not avoid bone to the extent previously suggested by SEM microwear data. DMTA characters most indicative of bone consumption (i.e., complexity and textural fill volume) suggest that carcass utilization by the extinct carnivorans was not necessarily more complete during the Pleistocene at La Brea; thus, times may not have been \"tougher\" than the present. Additionally, minor to no significant differences in DMTA attributes from older (∼30-35 Ka) to younger (∼11.5 Ka) deposits offer little evidence that declining prey resources were a primary cause of extinction for these large cats.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/implications-diet-extinction-sabertoothed-cats-american-lions", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>11, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>19}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>19}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>11}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/518040"], "description"=>"*<p>Significant values (<i>p</i><0.05, critical value is 5.5) represent analyses performed absent of the Bonferroni correction (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>).</p><p><i>Asfc</i>, area-scale fractal complexity; <i>epLsar</i>, anisotropy; <i>Smc</i>, scale of maximum complexity; <i>Tfv</i>, texture fill volume; <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(3×3)</sub>, <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(9×9)</sub> heterogeneity of complexity in a 3×3 and 9×9 grid, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparisons", "extinct", "taxa", "pits", "spanning", "years", "rancho", "la"], "article_id"=>188528, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Larisa R. G. DeSantis", "Blaine W. Schubert", "Jessica R. Scott", "Peter S. Ungar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_comparisons_using_Dunn_8217_s_procedure_of_extinct_taxa_from_different_pits_spanning_8764_35_000_years_at_Rancho_La_Brea_California_/188528", "title"=>"Pairwise comparisons using Dunn’s procedure of extinct taxa from different pits spanning ∼35,000 years at Rancho La Brea, California.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:22:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/517822"], "description"=>"<p>Examples include: (A) <i>A. jubatus</i> (AMNH 161139), (B) <i>P. leo</i> (USNM236919), (C) <i>C. crocuta</i> (AMNH 83592), (D) <i>P. atrox</i> (LACMHC 6996), and (E) <i>S. fatalis</i> (LACMHC 2002-298).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["photosimulations", "microwear", "surfaces", "extant", "extinct", "carnivorans"], "article_id"=>188315, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Larisa R. G. DeSantis", "Blaine W. Schubert", "Jessica R. Scott", "Peter S. Ungar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_dimensional_photosimulations_of_microwear_surfaces_of_all_extant_and_extinct_carnivorans_analyzed_/188315", "title"=>"Three-dimensional photosimulations of microwear surfaces of all extant and extinct carnivorans analyzed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:18:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/517966"], "description"=>"*<p>Significant values (<i>p</i><0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test). Mean calibrated ages in years before present (and standard deviations) for the pits studied are noted in order from oldest to youngest: Pit 77, 35370 (no SD reported); Pit 91, 29068 (18367); Pit 3, 18593 (5541); Pit 4, 14546 (7768); and, Pit 67 (61–67 was examined), 11581 (3768; all dates are taken from Ref. 7). <i>S. fatalis</i> consists of only specimens from Pits 3, 67, and 91; however, <i>P. atrox</i> required supplemental specimens from similarly aged pits to increase sample sizes, temporally. <i>Asfc</i>, area-scale fractal complexity; <i>epLsar</i>, anisotropy; <i>Smc</i>, scale of maximum complexity; <i>Tfv</i>, texture fill volume; <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(3×3)</sub>, <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(9×9)</sub> heterogeneity of complexity in a 3×3 and 9×9 grid, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deviation", "dental", "microwear", "characters", "extinct", "taxa", "temporal", "pits", "rancho", "la"], "article_id"=>188452, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Larisa R. G. DeSantis", "Blaine W. Schubert", "Jessica R. Scott", "Peter S. Ungar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_standard_deviation_SD_and_p_values_for_dental_microwear_characters_Asfc_epLsar_Smc_Tfv_HAsfc_3_3_HAsfc_9_9_of_extinct_taxa_from_different_temporal_pits_at_Rancho_La_Brea_California_/188452", "title"=>"Mean, standard deviation (SD), and <i>p</i>-values for dental microwear characters (<i>Asfc, epLsar, Smc, Tfv, HAsfc<sub>(3</sub></i><sub>×<i>3)</i></sub><i>, HAsfc<sub>(9</sub></i><sub>×<i>9)</i></sub>) of extinct taxa from different temporal pits at Rancho La Brea, California.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:20:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/280557", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/280616"], "description"=>"<div><p>The saber-toothed cat, <em>Smilodon fatalis</em>, and American lion, <em>Panthera atrox</em>, were among the largest terrestrial carnivores that lived during the Pleistocene, going extinct along with other megafauna ∼12,000 years ago. Previous work suggests that times were difficult at La Brea (California) during the late Pleistocene, as nearly all carnivores have greater incidences of tooth breakage (used to infer greater carcass utilization) compared to today. As Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA) can differentiate between levels of bone consumption in extant carnivores, we use DMTA to clarify the dietary niches of extinct carnivorans from La Brea. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that times were tough at La Brea with carnivorous taxa utilizing more of the carcasses. Our results show no evidence of bone crushing by <em>P. atrox</em>, with DMTA attributes most similar to the extant cheetah, <em>Acinonyx jubatus</em>, which actively avoids bone. In contrast, <em>S. fatalis</em> has DMTA attributes most similar to the African lion <em>Panthera leo</em>, implying that <em>S. fatalis</em> did not avoid bone to the extent previously suggested by SEM microwear data. DMTA characters most indicative of bone consumption (i.e., complexity and textural fill volume) suggest that carcass utilization by the extinct carnivorans was not necessarily more complete during the Pleistocene at La Brea; thus, times may not have been “tougher” than the present. Additionally, minor to no significant differences in DMTA attributes from older (∼30–35 Ka) to younger (∼11.5 Ka) deposits offer little evidence that declining prey resources were a primary cause of extinction for these large cats.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["implications", "extinction", "saber-toothed", "cats", "american", "lions"], "article_id"=>115326, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Larisa R. G. DeSantis", "Blaine W. Schubert", "Jessica R. Scott", "Peter S. Ungar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Implications_of_Diet_for_the_Extinction_of_Saber_Toothed_Cats_and_American_Lions__/115326", "title"=>"Implications of Diet for the Extinction of Saber-Toothed Cats and American Lions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 01:28:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/517876"], "description"=>"<p>Extant cheetahs (<i>A. jubatus</i>, ◊), African lions (<i>P. leo</i>, +), and hyenas (<i>C. crocuta</i>, □) are from Ref. 18 and supplemental unpublished samples from wild caught animals throughout Africa. The extinct American lion (<i>P. atrox</i>, •) and saber toothed cat (<i>S. fatalis</i>, ▴) are from the Pleistocene Rancho La Brea site located in southern California (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453#pone.0052453.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anisotropy", "extant", "extinct"], "article_id"=>188379, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Larisa R. G. DeSantis", "Blaine W. Schubert", "Jessica R. Scott", "Peter S. Ungar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bivariate_plot_of_anisotropy_and_complexity_of_extant_and_extinct_carnivorans_/188379", "title"=>"Bivariate plot of anisotropy and complexity of extant and extinct carnivorans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/517924"], "description"=>"<p><i>n,</i> number of individuals sampled<i>; Asfc</i>, area-scale fractal complexity; <i>epLsar</i>, anisotropy; <i>Smc</i>, scale of maximum complexity; <i>Tfv</i>, texture fill volume; <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(3×3)</sub>, <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(9×9)</sub> heterogeneity of complexity in a 3×3 and 9×9 grid, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dmta"], "article_id"=>188430, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Larisa R. G. DeSantis", "Blaine W. Schubert", "Jessica R. Scott", "Peter S. Ungar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_statistics_for_each_DMTA_variable_by_species_/188430", "title"=>"Descriptive statistics for each DMTA variable by species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:20:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/517999"], "description"=>"*<p>Significant values (<i>p</i><0.05) represent analyses performed absent of the Bonferroni correction (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>). <i>Asfc</i>, area-scale fractal complexity; <i>epLsar</i>, anisotropy; <i>Smc</i>, scale of maximum complexity; <i>Tfv</i>, texture fill volume; <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(3×3)</sub>, <i>HAsfc</i><sub>(9×9)</sub> heterogeneity of complexity in a 3×3 and 9×9 grid, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparisons", "extant", "extinct"], "article_id"=>188495, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Larisa R. G. DeSantis", "Blaine W. Schubert", "Jessica R. Scott", "Peter S. Ungar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052453.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_comparisons_using_Dunn_8217_s_procedure_of_extant_and_extinct_taxa_/188495", "title"=>"Pairwise comparisons using Dunn’s procedure of extant and extinct taxa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:21:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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