Is There an Ideal REDD+ Program? An Analysis of Policy Trade-Offs at the Local Level
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{"title"=>"Is There an Ideal REDD+ Program? An Analysis of Policy Trade-Offs at the Local Level", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"George A.", "last_name"=>"Dyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56013600700"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin", "last_name"=>"Matthews", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402909699"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick", "last_name"=>"Meyfroidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"23482376500"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871587137", "pui"=>"366343736", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052478", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84871587137", "pmid"=>"23300681"}, "id"=>"06de7ab6-fd9e-3cde-a098-482cf137077f", "abstract"=>"We use economy-wide simulation methods to analyze the outcome of a simple REDD+ program in a mixed subsistence/commercial-agriculture economy. Alternative scenarios help trace REDD+'s causal chain, revealing how trade-offs between the program's public and private costs and benefits determine its effectiveness, efficiency and equity (the 3Es). Scenarios reveal a complex relationship between the 3Es not evident in more aggregate analyses. Setting aside land as a carbon sink always influences the productivity of agriculture and its supply of non-market goods and services; but the overall returns to land and labor-which ultimately determine the opportunity cost of enrollment, the price of carbon and the distribution of gains and losses-depend on local conditions. In the study area, market-oriented landowners could enroll 30{%} of local land into a cost-effective program, but local subsistence demands would raise their opportunity costs as REDD+ unfurls, increasing the marginal cost of carbon. A combination of rent and wage changes would create net costs for most private stakeholders, including program participants. Increasing carbon prices undermines the program's efficiency without solving its inequities; expanding the program reduces inefficiencies but increases private costs with only minor improvements in equity. A program that prevents job losses could be the best option, but its efficiency compared to direct compensation could depend on program scale. Overall, neither the cost nor the 3Es of alternative REDD+ programs can be assessed without accounting for local demand for subsistence goods and services. In the context of Mexico's tropical highlands, a moderate-sized REDD+ program could at best have no net impact on rural households. REDD+ mechanisms should avoid general formulas by giving local authorities the necessary flexibility to address the trade-offs involved. National programs themselves should remain flexible enough to adjust for spatially and temporally changing contexts. {©} 2012 Dyer et al.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ideal-redd-program-analysis-policy-tradeoffs-local-level", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Ghana"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/518478"], "description"=>"<p>Alternative program designs, represented through various scenarios, yield vastly different costs and benefits. The net social benefits from REDD+ are given by the sum of its public and private benefits minus the sum of its public and private costs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["costs", "benefits"], "article_id"=>188976, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["George A. Dyer", "Robin Matthews", "Patrick Meyfroidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052478.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aggregate_costs_and_benefits_of_alternative_program_designs_/188976", "title"=>"Aggregate costs and benefits of alternative program designs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:29:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/518285"], "description"=>"<p>REDD+’s public costs and benefits can be conceived as a function of specific program characteristics, whose influence can be traced from their effect on rents and wages to the associated distribution of gains and losses across different sectors of the population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["causal"], "article_id"=>188782, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["George A. Dyer", "Robin Matthews", "Patrick Meyfroidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052478.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_REDD_8217_s_causal_chain_/188782", "title"=>"REDD+’s causal chain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:26:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/280799"], "description"=>"<div><p>We use economy-wide simulation methods to analyze the outcome of a simple REDD+ program in a mixed subsistence/commercial-agriculture economy. Alternative scenarios help trace REDD+’s causal chain, revealing how trade-offs between the program’s public and private costs and benefits determine its effectiveness, efficiency and equity (the 3Es). Scenarios reveal a complex relationship between the 3Es not evident in more aggregate analyses. Setting aside land as a carbon sink always influences the productivity of agriculture and its supply of non-market goods and services; but the overall returns to land and labor–which ultimately determine the opportunity cost of enrollment, the price of carbon and the distribution of gains and losses–depend on local conditions. In the study area, market-oriented landowners could enroll 30% of local land into a cost-effective program, but local subsistence demands would raise their opportunity costs as REDD+ unfurls, increasing the marginal cost of carbon. A combination of rent and wage changes would create net costs for most private stakeholders, including program participants. Increasing carbon prices undermines the program’s efficiency without solving its inequities; expanding the program reduces inefficiencies but increases private costs with only minor improvements in equity. A program that prevents job losses could be the best option, but its efficiency compared to direct compensation could depend on program scale. Overall, neither the cost nor the 3Es of alternative REDD+ programs can be assessed without accounting for local demand for subsistence goods and services. In the context of Mexico’s tropical highlands, a moderate-sized REDD+ program could at best have no net impact on rural households. REDD+ mechanisms should avoid general formulas by giving local authorities the necessary flexibility to address the trade-offs involved. National programs themselves should remain flexible enough to adjust for spatially and temporally changing contexts.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trade-offs", "level"], "article_id"=>115382, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["George A. Dyer", "Robin Matthews", "Patrick Meyfroidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052478", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Is_There_an_Ideal_REDD_Program_An_Analysis_of_Policy_Trade_Offs_at_the_Local_Level__/115382", "title"=>"Is There an Ideal REDD+ Program? An Analysis of Policy Trade-Offs at the Local Level", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 01:29:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/518369"], "description"=>"<p>The model consists of 49 households engaging in various on-farm activities (A) while interacting off-farm with other agents in the village economy (B). Ovals represent variables (i.e., agents’ decisions or endogenous factor prices); rectangles represent fixed endowments; arrows indicate causality. A) Output and factor inputs are determined simultaneously for each activity. When aggregated across activities, factor use constitutes the household’s factor demand. The difference between factor demand and supply determines its net factor supply to the market. B) When aggregated across households, net factor supplies determine factor prices within the village, which influence each household’s factor use simultaneously.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology"], "article_id"=>188871, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["George A. Dyer", "Robin Matthews", "Patrick Meyfroidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052478.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_village_model_/188871", "title"=>"The village model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:27:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/518549"], "description"=>"<p>Changes in carbon prices and land area under a simulated PES program and their effects on value added and economic rents (top row), local households’ income (middle row), and landlords’ incomes (bottom row).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology"], "article_id"=>189053, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["George A. Dyer", "Robin Matthews", "Patrick Meyfroidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052478.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_program_design_on_key_economic_variables_/189053", "title"=>"Effects of program design on key economic variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:30:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/518666"], "description"=>"<p>Types of agents (as defined by their assets and activities).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agents", "defined", "assets"], "article_id"=>189166, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["George A. Dyer", "Robin Matthews", "Patrick Meyfroidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052478.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Types_of_agents_as_defined_by_their_assets_and_activities_/189166", "title"=>"Types of agents (as defined by their assets and activities).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:32:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/518632"], "description"=>"1.<p>Figures represent percentage changes with respect to the baseline before the program, except as noted below. Columns represent start and end-points of a scenario, but some points are common to several scenarios.</p>2.<p>Percentage in excess of original rental rates.</p>3.<p>Percentage of total arable land in locality.</p>4.<p>Percentage of total village households.</p>5.<p>Percentage of program target.</p>6.<p>Percentage in excess of current rental rates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pes", "designs", "defined"], "article_id"=>189135, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["George A. Dyer", "Robin Matthews", "Patrick Meyfroidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052478.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Economic_effects_of_alternative_PES_program_designs_as_defined_by_program_characteristics_1_/189135", "title"=>"Economic effects of alternative PES program designs (as defined by program characteristics).<sup>1</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-26 02:32:15"}

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Relative Metric

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