Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an Immersive Virtual Environment
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{"title"=>"Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an Immersive Virtual Environment", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mel", "last_name"=>"Slater", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202932472"}, {"first_name"=>"Aitor", "last_name"=>"Rovira", "scopus_author_id"=>"36168782400"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Southern", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602982397"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Swapp", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508057689"}, {"first_name"=>"Jian J.", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55912086700"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire", "last_name"=>"Campbell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403367644"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Levine", "scopus_author_id"=>"36988990300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368034720", "pmid"=>"23300991", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052766", "sgr"=>"84871809582", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871809582"}, "id"=>"8182d172-625d-3e0e-9f40-e00bc6956396", "abstract"=>"Under what conditions will a bystander intervene to try to stop a violent attack by one person on another? It is generally believed that the greater the size of the crowd of bystanders, the less the chance that any of them will intervene. A complementary model is that social identity is critical as an explanatory variable. For example, when the bystander shares common social identity with the victim the probability of intervention is enhanced, other things being equal. However, it is generally not possible to study such hypotheses experimentally for practical and ethical reasons. Here we show that an experiment that depicts a violent incident at life-size in immersive virtual reality lends support to the social identity explanation. 40 male supporters of Arsenal Football Club in England were recruited for a two-factor between-groups experiment: the victim was either an Arsenal supporter or not (in-group/out-group), and looked towards the participant for help or not during the confrontation. The response variables were the numbers of verbal and physical interventions by the participant during the violent argument. The number of physical interventions had a significantly greater mean in the in-group condition compared to the out-group. The more that participants perceived that the Victim was looking to them for help the greater the number of interventions in the in-group but not in the out-group. These results are supported by standard statistical analysis of variance, with more detailed findings obtained by a symbolic regression procedure based on genetic programming. Verbal interventions made during their experience, and analysis of post-experiment interview data suggest that in-group members were more prone to confrontational intervention compared to the out-group who were more prone to make statements to try to diffuse the situation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bystander-responses-violent-incident-immersive-virtual-environment", "reader_count"=>118, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>31, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>45, "Social Sciences"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>45}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>31}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Ireland"=>1, "Dominican Republic"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>7, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514495"], "description"=>"<p>(1) and (2). (a) The fitted against observed values for <i>nPhys</i>. (b) The fitted against observed for <i>nVerbal</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fitted", "interventions"], "article_id"=>184989, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fitted_number_of_interventions_by_VictimLooked_from_Eqs_/184989", "title"=>"The fitted number of interventions by <i>VictimLooked</i> from Eqs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:23:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514603"], "description"=>"<p>Frequencies of the Codes in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766#pone-0052766-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codes"], "article_id"=>185096, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_the_Codes_in_Table_3_/185096", "title"=>"Frequencies of the Codes in Table 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:24:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281067", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281110", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281183", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281232", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281287", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281330", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281379"], "description"=>"<div><p>Under what conditions will a bystander intervene to try to stop a violent attack by one person on another? It is generally believed that the greater the size of the crowd of bystanders, the less the chance that any of them will intervene. A complementary model is that social identity is critical as an explanatory variable. For example, when the bystander shares common social identity with the victim the probability of intervention is enhanced, other things being equal. However, it is generally not possible to study such hypotheses experimentally for practical and ethical reasons. Here we show that an experiment that depicts a violent incident at life-size in immersive virtual reality lends support to the social identity explanation. 40 male supporters of Arsenal Football Club in England were recruited for a two-factor between-groups experiment: the victim was either an Arsenal supporter or not (in-group/out-group), and looked towards the participant for help or not during the confrontation. The response variables were the numbers of verbal and physical interventions by the participant during the violent argument. The number of physical interventions had a significantly greater mean in the in-group condition compared to the out-group. The more that participants perceived that the Victim was looking to them for help the greater the number of interventions in the in-group but not in the out-group. These results are supported by standard statistical analysis of variance, with more detailed findings obtained by a symbolic regression procedure based on genetic programming. Verbal interventions made during their experience, and analysis of post-experiment interview data suggest that in-group members were more prone to confrontational intervention compared to the out-group who were more prone to make statements to try to diffuse the situation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bystander", "responses", "immersive", "environment"], "article_id"=>115427, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bystander_Responses_to_a_Violent_Incident_in_an_Immersive_Virtual_Environment__/115427", "title"=>"Bystander Responses to a Violent Incident in an Immersive Virtual Environment", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:30:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514746"], "description"=>"<p>All items were presented as statements on a 1–7 Likert scale where 1 meant least agreement and 7 most agreement with the corresponding statement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["post-questionnaire", "corresponding"], "article_id"=>185236, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Post_Questionnaire_and_Corresponding_Variable_Names_/185236", "title"=>"The Post-Questionnaire and Corresponding Variable Names.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:27:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514694"], "description"=>"<p>Codes for the Interview Question: What would have made it more likely for you to intervene?</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "computer science"], "article_id"=>185186, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Codes_for_the_Interview_Question_What_would_have_made_it_more_likely_for_you_to_intervene_/185186", "title"=>"Codes for the Interview Question: What would have made it more likely for you to intervene?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:26:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514625"], "description"=>"<p>Codes for the Interview Question: Were your responses realistic?</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses"], "article_id"=>185117, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Codes_for_the_Interview_Question_Were_your_responses_realistic_/185117", "title"=>"Codes for the Interview Question: Were your responses realistic?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:25:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514852"], "description"=>"<p>Frequencies of Statements in Response to the Interview Question: What factors tended to draw you out of the experience?</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["statements", "factors", "tended"], "article_id"=>185340, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_Statements_in_Response_to_the_Interview_Question_What_factors_tended_to_draw_you_out_of_the_experience_/185340", "title"=>"Frequencies of Statements in Response to the Interview Question: What factors tended to draw you out of the experience?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514718"], "description"=>"<p>n = 9 for each of the two Out-group cells, n = 10 for each of the two In-group cells, n = 38 in total.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors", "numbers"], "article_id"=>185209, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_and_Standard_Errors_of_Numbers_of_Interventions_/185209", "title"=>"Means and Standard Errors of Numbers of Interventions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:26:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514429"], "description"=>"<p>(a) For the verbal interventions and (b) for the physical interventions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interventions"], "article_id"=>184925, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_interventions_by_VictimLooked_and_Group_/184925", "title"=>"Number of interventions by <i>VictimLooked</i> and <i>Group</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:22:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514816"], "description"=>"<p>Frequencies of the Codes in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766#pone-0052766-t007\" target=\"_blank\">Table 7</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codes"], "article_id"=>185311, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_the_Codes_in_Table_7_/185311", "title"=>"Frequencies of the Codes in Table 7.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:28:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514778"], "description"=>"<p>Codes for the Interview Questions: What feelings/responses did you have while this was happening?</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["did", "was"], "article_id"=>185273, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Aitor Rovira", "Richard Southern", "David Swapp", "Jian J. Zhang", "Claire Campbell", "Mark Levine"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052766.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Codes_for_the_Interview_Questions_What_feelings_responses_did_you_have_while_this_was_happening_/185273", "title"=>"Codes for the Interview Questions: What feelings/responses did you have while this was happening?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:27:53"}

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Relative Metric

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