Contemporaneous Trace and Body Fossils from a Late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, Allow Assessment of Bias in the Fossil Record
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{"title"=>"Contemporaneous Trace and Body Fossils from a Late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, Allow Assessment of Bias in the Fossil Record", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aaron Bruce", "last_name"=>"Camens", "scopus_author_id"=>"35104476700"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen Paul", "last_name"=>"Carey", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103028788"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368034708", "sgr"=>"84871773397", "pmid"=>"23301008", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871773397", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052957"}, "id"=>"e8aed307-bf20-342b-8d31-8982c2564556", "abstract"=>"The co-occurrence of vertebrate trace and body fossils within a single geological formation is rare and the probability of these parallel records being contemporaneous (i.e. on or near the same bedding plane) is extremely low. We report here a late Pleistocene locality from the Victorian Volcanic Plains in south-eastern Australia in which demonstrably contemporaneous, but independently accumulated vertebrate trace and body fossils occur. Bite marks from a variety of taxa are also present on the bones. This site provides a unique opportunity to examine the biases of these divergent fossil records (skeletal, footprints and bite marks) that sampled a single fauna. The skeletal record produced the most complete fauna, with the footprint record indicating a markedly different faunal composition with less diversity and the feeding traces suggesting the presence, amongst others, of a predator not represented by either the skeletal or footprint records. We found that the large extinct marsupial predator Thylacoleo was the only taxon apparently represented by all three records, suggesting that the behavioral characteristics of large carnivores may increase the likelihood of their presence being detected within a fossil fauna. In contrast, Diprotodon (the largest-ever marsupial) was represented only by trace fossils at this site and was absent from the site's skeletal record, despite its being a common and easily detected presence in late Pleistocene skeletal fossil faunas elsewhere in Australia. Small mammals absent from the footprint record for the site were represented by skeletal fossils and bite marks on bones.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/contemporaneous-trace-body-fossils-late-pleistocene-lakebed-victoria-australia-allow-assessment-bias", "reader_count"=>11, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/515151"], "description"=>"<p>The number of individuals represented by body (skeletal) fossils, the number of trace fossils (trackways, after Carey et al. 2011) and the taxa possibly represented by bite marks on bones at the VVP site.</p>†<p>indicates extinct taxa, x represents taxa whose bite marks are probably present and X represents taxa whose bite marks are confidently identified, MNI = minimum number of individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["represented", "vvp", "fossil"], "article_id"=>185645, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Taxa_represented_in_the_VVP_fossil_deposits_/185645", "title"=>"Taxa represented in the VVP fossil deposits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:34:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514392"], "description"=>"<p>Plan view of the distribution of the two skeletal deposits in relation to the trackways at the Victorian Volcanic Plains site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vvp"], "article_id"=>184890, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_VVP_site_/184890", "title"=>"Map of the VVP site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:21:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/515101"], "description"=>"<p>Proportions of organisms represented by body (skeletal) fossils (a) and trace (footprint) fossils (b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["taxa"], "article_id"=>185602, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportional_representation_of_taxa_by_trace_and_body_fossils_/185602", "title"=>"Proportional representation of taxa by trace and body fossils.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:33:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/515172"], "description"=>"<p>Approximate dimensions of skeletal accumulations (SA) in metres. For location relative to trackways, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957#pone-0052957-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fossil"], "article_id"=>185675, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_fossil_deposit_dimensions_/185675", "title"=>"Body fossil deposit dimensions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:34:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514647"], "description"=>"<p>(a) large macropodid tracks, identified in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957#pone.0052957-Carey1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a> as probably belonging to the extinct macropodid <i>Protemnodon</i>, illustrating deformational characteristics that give clues as to the paleoenvironment of the trackway surface; (b) diprotodontid pes print, identified in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957#pone.0052957-Carey1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a> as belonging to <i>Diprotodon</i>; (c) a diprotodontid pes print overprinting a vombatid trackway; (d) possible <i>Thylacoleo</i> prints, black arrows point to digital impressions; all scale bars equal 100 mm, yellow arrows point to marginal ridges, red arrows to ejecta and white arrows to adhesion ridges.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["footprints", "vvp"], "article_id"=>185148, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fossil_footprints_from_the_VVP_site_/185148", "title"=>"Fossil footprints from the VVP site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:25:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/279410", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/279464", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/279526"], "description"=>"<div><p>The co-occurrence of vertebrate trace and body fossils within a single geological formation is rare and the probability of these parallel records being contemporaneous (i.e. on or near the same bedding plane) is extremely low. We report here a late Pleistocene locality from the Victorian Volcanic Plains in south-eastern Australia in which demonstrably contemporaneous, but independently accumulated vertebrate trace and body fossils occur. Bite marks from a variety of taxa are also present on the bones. This site provides a unique opportunity to examine the biases of these divergent fossil records (skeletal, footprints and bite marks) that sampled a single fauna. The skeletal record produced the most complete fauna, with the footprint record indicating a markedly different faunal composition with less diversity and the feeding traces suggesting the presence, amongst others, of a predator not represented by either the skeletal or footprint records. We found that the large extinct marsupial predator <em>Thylacoleo</em> was the only taxon apparently represented by all three records, suggesting that the behavioral characteristics of large carnivores may increase the likelihood of their presence being detected within a fossil fauna. In contrast, <em>Diprotodon</em> (the largest-ever marsupial) was represented only by trace fossils at this site and was absent from the site's skeletal record, despite its being a common and easily detected presence in late Pleistocene skeletal fossil faunas elsewhere in Australia. Small mammals absent from the footprint record for the site were represented by skeletal fossils and bite marks on bones.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contemporaneous", "fossils", "pleistocene", "lakebed", "fossil", "record"], "article_id"=>115090, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Contemporaneous_Trace_and_Body_Fossils_from_a_Late_Pleistocene_Lakebed_in_Victoria_Australia_Allow_Assessment_of_Bias_in_the_Fossil_Record__/115090", "title"=>"Contemporaneous Trace and Body Fossils from a Late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, Allow Assessment of Bias in the Fossil Record", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:24:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514780"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Rose diagram showing generally NNE-SSW alignment of elongate bones from skeletal accumulation 2. The mean (arrowed) of 48 measurements is 14° (95% confidence interval ±35°). (b) Rose diagram showing generally westward transport direction of straight-crested and linguoid ripples. The mean transport direction (arrow) is to 278° (95% confidence interval ±4°). The steeper face of each ripple is the lee slope. In the small proportion of ripples that are symmetrical, it is assumed that they were formed by waves travelling westward (onshore). Software used is Holcombe's GEOrient.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vvp"], "article_id"=>185284, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ripple_and_bone_orientation_at_the_VVP_site_/185284", "title"=>"Ripple and bone orientation at the VVP site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:28:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514879"], "description"=>"<p>(a) MV P231884 small <i>Macropus</i> ilium with paired v-shaped incisions cf. <i>Thylacoleo</i>; (b) MV P231885 <i>Macropus</i> 4<sup>th</sup> metatarsal with v-shaped incisions cf. <i>Thylacoleo</i>; (c) MV P231886 distal <i>Macropus giganteus</i> tibial shaft with rodent gnawing, arrows indicate root etching; (d) MV P231887 <i>M. giganteus</i> tibial shaft with possible dasyurid bite marks; (e) MV P230123 macropodid limb fragment with depressed punctures cf. <i>Sarcophilus</i>; (f) MV P231888 chewed <i>Macropus</i> proximal 4<sup>th</sup> metatarsal cf. <i>Sarcophilus</i>; (g) MV P230103 <i>Macropus</i> distal 4<sup>th</sup> metatarsal with paired ?<i>Sarcophilus</i> canine or ?<i>Thylacoleo</i> incisor punctures; (h) MV P230090 small <i>Macropus</i> proximal 4<sup>th</sup> metatarsal with bite marks and digestion damage cf. <i>Sarcophilus</i>. All scale bars equal 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marks", "bones", "vvp", "skeletal"], "article_id"=>185377, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bite_marks_on_bones_from_the_VVP_skeletal_deposits_/185377", "title"=>"Bite marks on bones from the VVP skeletal deposits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:29:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/514988"], "description"=>"<p>Graph displaying the number of individuals represented by trackways and body (skeletal) fossils at the VVP site. Taxa are arranged by approximate body mass, largest to smallest. † indicates extinct taxa, ∧ the taxa responsible for the macropodid and vombatid tracks at the site may be extinct.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance", "taxa", "represented", "skeletal"], "article_id"=>185490, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Aaron Bruce Camens", "Stephen Paul Carey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052957.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_abundance_of_taxa_represented_by_trace_and_skeletal_fossils_/185490", "title"=>"Relative abundance of taxa represented by trace and skeletal fossils.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-02 01:31:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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