The Afterlife of Interspecific Indirect Genetic Effects: Genotype Interactions Alter Litter Quality with Consequences for Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics
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{"title"=>"The Afterlife of Interspecific Indirect Genetic Effects: Genotype Interactions Alter Litter Quality with Consequences for Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mark A.", "last_name"=>"Genung", "scopus_author_id"=>"35726673700"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph K.", "last_name"=>"Bailey", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404351316"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer A.", "last_name"=>"Schweitzer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102296218"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84872510050", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872510050", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"368150029", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0053718", "pmid"=>"23349735"}, "id"=>"2ef6b843-4fab-308c-b4c2-5da8dd7b54b7", "abstract"=>"Aboveground-belowground linkages are recognized as divers of community dynamics and ecosystem processes, but the impacts of plant-neighbor interactions on these linkages are virtually unknown. Plant-neighbor interactions are a type of interspecific indirect genetic effect (IIGE) if the focal plant's phenotype is altered by the expression of genes in a neighboring heterospecific plant, and IIGEs could persist after plant senescence to affect ecosystem processes. This perspective can provide insight into how plant-neighbor interactions affect evolution, as IIGEs are capable of altering species interactions and community composition over time. Utilizing genotypes of Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we experimentally tested whether IIGEs that had affected living focal plants would affect litter decomposition rate, as well as nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) dynamics after the focal plant senesced. We found that species interactions affected N release and genotype interactions affected P immobilization. From a previous study we knew that neighbor genotype influenced patterns of biomass allocation for focal plants. Here we extend those previous results to show that these changes in biomass allocation altered litter quality, that then altered rates of decomposition and nutrient cycling. Our results provide insights into above- and belowground linkages by showing that, through their effects on plant litter quality (e.g., litter lignin:N), IIGEs can have afterlife effects, tying plant-neighbor interactions to ecosystem processes. This holistic approach advances our understanding of decomposition and nutrient cycling by showing that evolutionary processes (i.e., IIGEs) can influence ecosystem functioning after plant senescence. Because plant traits are determined by the combined effects of genetic and environmental influences, and because these traits are known to affect decomposition and nutrient cycling, we suggest that ecosystem processes can be described as gene-less products of genetic interactions among the species comprising ecological communities.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/afterlife-interspecific-indirect-genetic-effects-genotype-interactions-alter-litter-quality-conseque", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Estonia"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505157"], "description"=>"<p>Initial lignin (A), foliar nitrogen (N) (B), foliar phosphorous (P) (C), and lignin:N (D) values are presented for three genotypes each of <i>Solidago altissima</i> and <i>Solidago gigantea</i>. “Genotype” p-values refer to genotype nested within species. In addition to this, post-hoc tests were conducted within each species, corrected for multiple comparisons using reverse Bonferroni corrections (α = 0.05), and differences among genotypes within a species are designated by different letters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["affects", "litter"], "article_id"=>175678, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Mark A. Genung", "Joseph K. Bailey", "Jennifer A. Schweitzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053718.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intraspecific_variation_affects_initial_litter_chemistry_/175678", "title"=>"Intraspecific variation affects initial litter chemistry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:51:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505421"], "description"=>"<p>Interspecific indirect genetic effects (IIGEs) alter focal plant biomass traits, and afterlife effects cross the “living-dead” barrier to influence ecosystem processes. IIGE data is modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053718#pone.0053718-Turkington1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>, and are not the result of analyses done here. IIGEs show the partial r<sup>2</sup> values of neighbor genotype on focal plant biomass traits. Ecosystem processes abbreviations represent nitrogen (N) uptake and release, decomposition rate (k), and phosphorous (P) uptake and release. “Afterlife effects” arrows show the partial r<sup>2</sup> value of plant biomass traits together in a single model that also contained species identity, and genotype nested within species. Arrows are only present for significant relationships. Combined, afterlife effects explained 24% of the variation in N uptake and release.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["afterlife"], "article_id"=>175945, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Mark A. Genung", "Joseph K. Bailey", "Jennifer A. Schweitzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053718.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Indirect_genetic_effects_and_afterlife_effects_on_ecosystem_processes_/175945", "title"=>"Indirect genetic effects and afterlife effects on ecosystem processes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:52:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505481"], "description"=>"<p>Results of general linear models relating decomposition and nutrient dynamics to species interactions are shown. Mass remaining and phosphorous (P) dynamics were only affected by time and species. Nitrogen (N) dynamics was affected by a three way interaction of time, species, and neighbor species. Italicized, bolded values are significant at α = 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decomposition"], "article_id"=>176007, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Mark A. Genung", "Joseph K. Bailey", "Jennifer A. Schweitzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053718.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_effects_on_decomposition_and_nutrient_dynamics_/176007", "title"=>"Species effects on decomposition and nutrient dynamics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:53:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505507"], "description"=>"<p>NA – not applicable.</p><p>Results of generalized linear models relating growing season biomass to decomposition rate (k) and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) dynamics are shown. Contemporary effects are factors directly tied to leaf litter decomposition, and afterlife effects are pre-senescence plant traits that may indirect affect decomposition. Neighbor genotype identity is known to have a significant impact on all listed “biomass” factors. All data points are means (N = 16) of a genotype-neighbor genotype pairs (e.g., mean of genotype A1 grown with genotype G2). The slope is the parameter estimate that relates the factors to the ecosystem-level responses, and indicates a positive or negative relationship between the factor and response. Italicized, bolded values are significant at α = 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["afterlife"], "article_id"=>176035, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Mark A. Genung", "Joseph K. Bailey", "Jennifer A. Schweitzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053718.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contemporary_and_afterlife_effects_on_ecosystem_processes_/176035", "title"=>"Contemporary and afterlife effects on ecosystem processes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:53:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505350"], "description"=>"<p>Phosphorous (P) immobilization (averaged across collections) was non-additive for three of five interspecific genotype mixtures. Results are presented at both the mixture level (left panels) and individual genotype level (right panels). For mixtures, asterisks indicate that P immobilization for the mixture as a whole was significantly different from additive expectations based on the monoculture P immobilization of both of the constituent genotypes. For individual genotypes, asterisks indicate that the P immobilization of a focal genotype was different in the presence of a particular interspecific neighbor than in monoculture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phosphorous"], "article_id"=>175874, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Mark A. Genung", "Joseph K. Bailey", "Jennifer A. Schweitzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053718.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_additive_effects_on_phosphorous_immobilization_/175874", "title"=>"Non-additive effects on phosphorous immobilization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:52:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505258"], "description"=>"<p>At the species level, plant-neighbor interactions drove patterns of decomposition and nutrient release. <i>Solidago altissima</i> decomposed faster overall than <i>Solidago gigantea</i> (A), a three way interaction between time, species and neighbor species affected nitrogen (N) dynamics (B), and <i>S. altissima</i> immobilizes more phosphorous (P) than <i>S. gigantea</i> (C). P-values are shown for significant factors (α = 0.05) in a fully factorial design that included time, species identity, and neighbor species identity. Non-significant factors are not listed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decomposition"], "article_id"=>175778, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Mark A. Genung", "Joseph K. Bailey", "Jennifer A. Schweitzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053718.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>43, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_level_effects_on_decomposition_and_nutrient_cycling_/175778", "title"=>"Species-level effects on decomposition and nutrient cycling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:51:55"}

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Relative Metric

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