Comparative Demography of an At-Risk African Elephant Population
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{"title"=>"Comparative Demography of an At-Risk African Elephant Population", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Wittemyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"8622054200"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Daballen", "scopus_author_id"=>"8273818400"}, {"first_name"=>"Iain", "last_name"=>"Douglas-Hamilton", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507571521"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872480321", "sgr"=>"84872480321", "pui"=>"368133861", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23341984", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0053726"}, "id"=>"d9973be5-266d-3a6e-a233-2fa9fa618def", "abstract"=>"Knowledge of population processes across various ecological and management settings offers important insights for species conservation and life history. In regard to its ecological role, charisma and threats from human impacts, African elephants are of high conservation concern and, as a result, are the focus of numerous studies across various contexts. Here, demographic data from an individually based study of 934 African elephants in Samburu, Kenya were summarized, providing detailed inspection of the population processes experienced by the population over a fourteen year period (including the repercussions of recent increases in illegal killing). These data were compared with those from populations inhabiting a spectrum of xeric to mesic ecosystems with variable human impacts. In relation to variability in climate and human impacts (causing up to 50% of recorded deaths among adults), annual mortality in Samburu fluctuated between 1 and 14% and, unrelatedly, natality between 2 and 14% driving annual population increases and decreases. Survivorship in Samburu was significantly lower than other populations with age-specific data even during periods of low illegal killing by humans, resulting in relatively low life expectancy of males (18.9 years) and females (21.8 years). Fecundity (primiparous age and inter-calf interval) were similar to those reported in other human impacted or recovering populations, and significantly greater than that of comparable stable populations. This suggests reproductive effort of African savanna elephants increases in relation to increased mortality (and resulting ecological ramifications) as predicted by life history theory. Further comparison across populations indicated that elongated inter-calf intervals and older ages of reproductive onset were related to age structure and density, and likely influenced by ecological conditions. This study provides detailed empirical data on elephant population dynamics strongly influenced by human impacts (laying the foundation for modeling approaches), supporting predictions of evolutionary theory regarding demographic responses to ecological processes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-demography-atrisk-african-elephant-population", "reader_count"=>131, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>25, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>25, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>39, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>39}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Botswana"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "South Africa"=>3, "Australia"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "France"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506608"], "description"=>"<p>Causes of mortality in the Samburu population assessed from carcasses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samburu", "assessed"], "article_id"=>177132, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["George Wittemyer", "David Daballen", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Causes_of_mortality_in_the_Samburu_population_assessed_from_carcasses_/177132", "title"=>"Causes of mortality in the Samburu population assessed from carcasses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:58:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506354"], "description"=>"<p>Annual proportions of illegally killed elephants (PIKE): The rate among found carcasses of illegally killing was greatest during the last three years of the study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proportions", "illegally", "killed", "elephants", "carcasses", "was", "years"], "article_id"=>176874, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["George Wittemyer", "David Daballen", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_proportions_of_illegally_killed_elephants_PIKE_The_rate_among_found_carcasses_of_illegally_killing_was_greatest_during_the_last_three_years_of_the_study_/176874", "title"=>"Annual proportions of illegally killed elephants (PIKE): The rate among found carcasses of illegally killing was greatest during the last three years of the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:54:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/277024", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/277053", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/277089", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/277130"], "description"=>"<div><p>Knowledge of population processes across various ecological and management settings offers important insights for species conservation and life history. In regard to its ecological role, charisma and threats from human impacts, African elephants are of high conservation concern and, as a result, are the focus of numerous studies across various contexts. Here, demographic data from an individually based study of 934 African elephants in Samburu, Kenya were summarized, providing detailed inspection of the population processes experienced by the population over a fourteen year period (including the repercussions of recent increases in illegal killing). These data were compared with those from populations inhabiting a spectrum of xeric to mesic ecosystems with variable human impacts. In relation to variability in climate and human impacts (causing up to 50% of recorded deaths among adults), annual mortality in Samburu fluctuated between 1 and 14% and, unrelatedly, natality between 2 and 14% driving annual population increases and decreases. Survivorship in Samburu was significantly lower than other populations with age-specific data even during periods of low illegal killing by humans, resulting in relatively low life expectancy of males (18.9 years) and females (21.8 years). Fecundity (primiparous age and inter-calf interval) were similar to those reported in other human impacted or recovering populations, and significantly greater than that of comparable stable populations. This suggests reproductive effort of African savanna elephants increases in relation to increased mortality (and resulting ecological ramifications) as predicted by life history theory. Further comparison across populations indicated that elongated inter-calf intervals and older ages of reproductive onset were related to age structure and density, and likely influenced by ecological conditions. This study provides detailed empirical data on elephant population dynamics strongly influenced by human impacts (laying the foundation for modeling approaches), supporting predictions of evolutionary theory regarding demographic responses to ecological processes.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparative", "demography", "at-risk", "african", "population"], "article_id"=>114603, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["George Wittemyer", "David Daballen", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparative_Demography_of_an_At_Risk_African_Elephant_Population__/114603", "title"=>"Comparative Demography of an At-Risk African Elephant Population", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:16:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506128"], "description"=>"<p>(b) The population mortality and natality varied annually the duration of the study. Natality pulses every 3–4 years are a function of the prolonged (22 month) gestation period of elephant resulting in multi-year inter-calving intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samburu", "demography", "births", "deaths"], "article_id"=>176652, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["George Wittemyer", "David Daballen", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_Samburu_population_demography_and_population_trend_a_The_number_of_births_black_bars_deaths_gray_bars_and_the_population_size_at_the_end_of_each_year_/176652", "title"=>"Annual Samburu population demography and population trend: (a) The number of births (black bars), deaths (gray bars), and the population size at the end of each year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:50:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506250"], "description"=>"<p>(b) Survivorship among females in Samburu predrought (black line) was lower than that of females from Amboseli N. P. (gray line black dots), Tarangire N. P. (gray line), and Addo Elephant Park (dashed line). (c) Survivorship among males in Samburu predrought (black line) was lower than that of males from Amboseli N. P. (gray line black dots) and Addo Elephant Park (dashed line). Male survivorship was recorded only to the age of 8 years in Tarangire N.P. (gray line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["survivorship", "curves", "samburu", "females", "males", "2009", "ramification", "morality", "increases", "drought", "successive"], "article_id"=>176758, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["George Wittemyer", "David Daballen", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_survivorship_a_Survivorship_curves_for_Samburu_females_solid_lines_and_males_dashed_lines_before_black_and_after_gray_2009_demonstrate_the_ramification_of_morality_increases_associated_with_the_extreme_drought_of_2009_and_successive_increased/176758", "title"=>"Comparative survivorship: (a) Survivorship curves for Samburu females (solid lines) and males (dashed lines) before (black) and after (gray) 2009 demonstrate the ramification of morality increases associated with the extreme drought of 2009 and successive increased illegal killing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:52:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506441"], "description"=>"<p>Indices of the age of reproductive onset: (a) Cumulative hazard rate for female primparous age (dotted line) and male dispersal (solid line) in the Samburu population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reproductive", "cumulative", "primparous", "dispersal", "samburu"], "article_id"=>176954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["George Wittemyer", "David Daballen", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Indices_of_the_age_of_reproductive_onset_a_Cumulative_hazard_rate_for_female_primparous_age_dotted_line_and_male_dispersal_solid_line_in_the_Samburu_population_/176954", "title"=>"Indices of the age of reproductive onset: (a) Cumulative hazard rate for female primparous age (dotted line) and male dispersal (solid line) in the Samburu population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:55:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505989"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves in Kenya, East Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samburu", "buffalo", "springs", "reserves"], "article_id"=>176507, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["George Wittemyer", "David Daballen", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053726.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Samburu_and_Buffalo_Springs_National_Reserves_in_Kenya_East_Africa_/176507", "title"=>"Map of the Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves in Kenya, East Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:48:27"}

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Relative Metric

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