Why the Long Face? The Mechanics of Mandibular Symphysis Proportions in Crocodiles
Publication Date
January 16, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Christopher W. Walmsley, Peter D. Smits, Michelle R. Quayle, Matthew R. Mc Curry, et al
Volume
8
Issue
1
Pages
e53873
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053873
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23342027
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3547052
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23342027
Web of Science
000313682700059
Scopus
84872462355
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/long-face-mechanics-mandibular-symphysis-proportions-crocodiles
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Why the Long Face? The Mechanics of Mandibular Symphysis Proportions in Crocodiles", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christopher W.", "last_name"=>"Walmsley", "scopus_author_id"=>"55889820500"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter D.", "last_name"=>"Smits", "scopus_author_id"=>"55070635800"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle R.", "last_name"=>"Quayle", "scopus_author_id"=>"55558895300"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew R.", "last_name"=>"McCurry", "scopus_author_id"=>"55010486400"}, {"first_name"=>"Heather S.", "last_name"=>"Richards", "scopus_author_id"=>"36741388100"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher C.", "last_name"=>"Oldfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"53664355800"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Wroe", "scopus_author_id"=>"35726136500"}, {"first_name"=>"Phillip D.", "last_name"=>"Clausen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005442179"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin R.", "last_name"=>"McHenry", "scopus_author_id"=>"9237499200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84872462355", "pmid"=>"23342027", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"368133841", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872462355", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0053873"}, "id"=>"568ef521-73a9-3985-9078-f03375ac8438", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Crocodilians exhibit a spectrum of rostral shape from long snouted (longirostrine), through to short snouted (brevirostrine) morphologies. The proportional length of the mandibular symphysis correlates consistently with rostral shape, forming as much as 50% of the mandible's length in longirostrine forms, but 10% in brevirostrine crocodilians. Here we analyse the structural consequences of an elongate mandibular symphysis in relation to feeding behaviours.\\n\\nMETHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simple beam and high resolution Finite Element (FE) models of seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads simulating biting, shaking and twisting. Using beam theory, we statistically compared multiple hypotheses of which morphological variables should control the biomechanical response. Brevi- and mesorostrine morphologies were found to consistently outperform longirostrine types when subject to equivalent biting, shaking and twisting loads. The best predictors of performance for biting and twisting loads in FE models were overall length and symphyseal length respectively; for shaking loads symphyseal length and a multivariate measurement of shape (PC1- which is strongly but not exclusively correlated with symphyseal length) were equally good predictors. Linear measurements were better predictors than multivariate measurements of shape in biting and twisting loads. For both biting and shaking loads but not for twisting, simple beam models agree with best performance predictors in FE models.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combining beam and FE modelling allows a priori hypotheses about the importance of morphological traits on biomechanics to be statistically tested. Short mandibular symphyses perform well under loads used for feeding upon large prey, but elongate symphyses incur high strains under equivalent loads, underlining the structural constraints to prey size in the longirostrine morphotype. The biomechanics of the crocodilian mandible are largely consistent with beam theory and can be predicted from simple morphological measurements, suggesting that crocodilians are a useful model for investigating the palaeobiomechanics of other aquatic tetrapods.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/long-face-mechanics-mandibular-symphysis-proportions-crocodiles", "reader_count"=>97, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>32}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>32}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Argentina"=>2, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506864"], "description"=>"<p>X axis plots the ratio of mandibular length to width, giving a size-controlled proxy for the spectrum of brevisrostral to longirostral morphology. Y axis is the proportion of symphyseal length to mandibular length. Values shown are natural logarithms. (A), data for 82 specimens of crocodilian, data measured from photographs of museum skulls; regression line is based upon mean values for each species. (B), data points as for (A), with data points ordered by width in each species and connected by lines. In effect, this plot shows the allometric trajectory of ML/W for each species, with the smallest animals on the right and largest on the left of each species plot; i.e. as animals increase in size, head width increases as a proportion of head length. Within each species, the symphyseal length (as a proportion of mandible length) remains consistent. (C), Regression lines for alligatorids, non-tomistomine crocodylids, <i>Gavialis</i>, and <i>Tomistoma</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["symphysis", "mandible", "extant"], "article_id"=>177376, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mandibular_symphysis_length_vs_mandible_length_in_extant_crocodilians_/177376", "title"=>"Mandibular symphysis length vs mandible length in extant crocodilians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:00:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506741"], "description"=>"<p>Specimens are scaled to approximately the same width and arranged from most longirostrine to most brevirostrine. Left: cranium and mandible in lateral view, Centre left: dorsal view of mandible, Centre right: Cranium in ventral view, Right: species name and specimen number.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>177246, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Range_of_skull_shape_in_crocodilians_/177246", "title"=>"Range of skull shape in crocodilians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:59:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508302"], "description"=>"<p>Shows mean, 50%, 75%, 90%, 95%, 99% and 100% strain values for taxon used in this study. 95% strain represents the largest elemental value of strain in the model if the highest 5% of all values are ignored. 100% strain is the maximum elemental strain in the model and likely represents constraint artefacts caused by boundary conditions. Taxon abbreviations: Ot, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>; Cm, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>; Cng, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; Ci, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; Cj, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; Mc, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; Ts, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fe"], "article_id"=>178790, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Values_of_strain_from_complex_FE_models_/178790", "title"=>"Values of strain from complex FE models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:08:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510512"], "description"=>"<p>For all models symphyseal beam diameter = 0.069054 mm and Rami beam diameter = 0.05 mm.</p><p>Model variation abbreviations are defined as follows:</p><p>(CL, CSL; VA, VW) – Constant length and symphyseal length, variable angle and width.</p><p>(CL, CW; VSL, VA) – Constant length and width, variable symphyseal length and angle.</p><p>(CA, CW; VSL, VL) – Constant angle and width, variable symphyseal length and length.</p><p>(CSL, CW; VL, VA) – Constant symphyseal length and width, variable length and angle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models"], "article_id"=>181001, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Dimensions_for_beam_models_1_/181001", "title"=>"Dimensions for beam models #1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:20:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/509410"], "description"=>"<p>Strain plots for volume scaled FEMs under <i>biting</i>, <i>shaking</i>, and <i>twisting</i> loads to show details of strain patterns. Top: <i>biting</i> load case plotted with a maximum strain limit of 0.001 (left) and 0.003 (right); the latter limit shows the position of the peak strains, and the former gives best comparison between the different load cases. Bottom left: <i>shaking</i> load case plotted with a maximum strain limit of 0.001. Bottom right: <i>twisting</i> load case plotted with a maximum strain limit of 0.001. Taxa: A, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>; B, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; C, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; D, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; E, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; F, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>; G, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "scaled"], "article_id"=>179898, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g024", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Strain_plots_for_volume_scaled_FEMs_/179898", "title"=>"Strain plots for volume scaled FEMs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:14:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507901"], "description"=>"<p>Skull of <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>, showing: (A), temporal (red) and pterygoid (yellow) muscle vectors; temporal vector is oriented vertically with the skull aligned horizontally, pterygoid vector runs between a point that is half of the cranial height at the postorbital bar, to the ventral surface of the mandible directly below the jaw joint. (B), calculation of the cross sectional area (CSA) for the temporal muscles; the outline maps the extent of the adductor chamber defined from osteological boundaries, viewed normal to the relevant vector. (C), calculation of CSA for pterygoid muscles; the outline is drawn normal to the vector. Outlines in B and C also show centroids, used for calculation of inlevers (see Thomason <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Thomason1\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>, McHenry <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-McHenry3\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crocodile"], "article_id"=>178388, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>74, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Reptile_version_of_dry_skull_method_in_a_crocodile_skull_/178388", "title"=>"Reptile version of ‘dry skull method’ in a crocodile skull.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:06:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/509248"], "description"=>"<p>Strain in the second set of simple beam models, plotted against morphological variables (from top) length, symphyseal length, angle, and width, for <i>biting</i> (left), <i>shaking</i> (middle) and <i>twisting</i> (right) loads. Note the strong correlation between bite and overall length, shake and symphyseal length, and twist and angle. Data is plotted as natural logarithms of linear measurements (mm) and angles (degrees). Dimensions of the beam models are based upon the volume rescaled versions of the high resolution FEMs for the corresponding species. Taxon abbreviations: O.t, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>; C.ng, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; C.i, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; C.j, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; M.c, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; T.s, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>; C.m, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models"], "article_id"=>179742, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g023", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Strain_for_simple_beam_models_2_/179742", "title"=>"Strain for simple beam models #2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:13:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/509613"], "description"=>"<p>Peak mandibular strain (95% values) plotted against morphometric variables (from top) length, symphyseal length, angle, width, and PC1 score for <i>biting</i> (left), <i>shaking</i> (middle) and <i>twisting</i> (right) loads. Note that strain in <i>biting</i> correlates strongly with overall length and very poorly with both angle and width, whilst in <i>shaking</i> strain has reasonable correlations with both symphyseal length and PC1. Contrary to beam predictions strain in <i>twisting</i> correlated strongly with symphyseal length and very poorly with angle. Data is plotted as natural logarithms of linear measurements (mm) and angles (degrees). Taxon: O.t, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>; C.ng, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; C.i, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; C.j, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; M.c, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; T.s, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>; C.m, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandibular"], "article_id"=>180098, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g026", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Peak_mandibular_strain_95_values_/180098", "title"=>"Peak mandibular strain (95% values).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:15:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510389"], "description"=>"<p>Length, symphyseal length, angle and width for these beam models is based upon the morphology of specimens listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone-0053873-t002\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 2</b></a><b>.1.</b> Note that these measurements are 1/100<sup>th</sup> of the ‘volume scaled’ high resolution meshes, not actual specimen size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models"], "article_id"=>180879, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Dimensions_for_beam_models_2_/180879", "title"=>"Dimensions for beam models #2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:19:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508122"], "description"=>"<p>The problem definition used to determine the equations of motion that describe the feeding behaviour associated with <i>shaking</i> a prey item. This motion is considered to be harmonic; since the skull oscillates about a neutral axis in a set period of time (); in our case this period is 0.25 seconds – i.e at a frequency () of 4 full cycles per second. Left: the equations of motion associated with <i>shaking</i>, where is angular displacement, is angular velocity and is angular acceleration. Maximum angular acceleration () occurs each time the skull changes direction; in our case (radians/sec<sup>2</sup>), where a positive value indicates counter clockwise acceleration and a negative value indicates a clockwise acceleration. Right: the range of motion for a crocodile <i>shaking</i> a prey item. Bottom right: shows the equations used to calculate the maximum force () exerted on the skull as a result of <i>shaking</i> a prey item of mass () – approximately 2.55 kg in the <i>M. cataphractus</i> example shown here. Here denotes linear acceleration (in the direction of force ) and denotes the distance to the centre of rotation. For our calculations is calculated as the perpendicular distance from the jaw hinge axis to the centre of mass of the prey item (outlever length) – approx. 297 mm in <i>M. cataphractus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>178608, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Calculation_of_shake_forces_/178608", "title"=>"Calculation of shake forces.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:07:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507182"], "description"=>"<p>Left: scan data before correction. Right: scan data after correction. See text for explanation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["correction", "diffraction", "artefacts"], "article_id"=>177692, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Manual_correction_of_diffraction_artefacts_in_i_Crocodylus_intermedius_i_scan_/177692", "title"=>"Manual correction of diffraction artefacts in <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i> scan.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:02:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510166"], "description"=>"<p>Material properties for elements used in each model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["properties", "elements"], "article_id"=>180655, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Material_properties_for_elements_used_in_each_model_/180655", "title"=>"Material properties for elements used in each model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:18:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508223"], "description"=>"<p>The problem definition used to determine the equations of motion that describe the feeding behaviour associated with <i>twisting</i> a prey item. Bottom Left: the range of motion for a crocodile <i>twisting</i> a prey item. Bottom right: the equations used to calculate the Torque generated by a crocodile of mass () as a result of <i>twisting</i> about its own axis with a prey item held in its jaws. Torque is the produce of moment of inertia () about the animals long axis and the angular acceleration () – which is assumed to be constant. Moment of inertial is calculated using mass () and radius (); in our calculations mass is approximated as fifty times the mass of the skull (approx. 40 kg in the <i>M. cataphractus</i> example shown here), while radius is approximated as skull width (approx. 152 mm in <i>M. cataphractus</i>). Initial angular velocity () is zero since in this case the twist is being made from a standing start. denotes the angular displacement of the twist in radians ( or 360 degrees in this case), while denotes the time taken to complete the rotation –0.5 seconds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>178706, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Calculation_of_twist_forces_/178706", "title"=>"Calculation of twist forces.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:07:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507692"], "description"=>"<p>From top; shows loads and restraints for <i>biting, shaking</i> and <i>twisting</i> respectively. In all three cases models are fully restrained (rotation and translation) at the most posterior points of the beam model. Loads are all placed at the most anterior point of the beam model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "restraints"], "article_id"=>178185, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Beam_models_showing_axes_restraints_and_loads_/178185", "title"=>"Beam models showing axes, restraints and loads.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:05:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507072"], "description"=>"<p>From top left: <i>Crocodylus intermedius, Tomistoma schlegelii, Mecistops cataphractus, Crocodylus moreletii, Crocodylus novaeguineae, Crocodylus johnstoni, Osteolaemus tetraspis.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>177577, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Specimen_used_in_this_study_/177577", "title"=>"Specimen used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:01:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510470"], "description"=>"<p>Landmark characterisation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>180954, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Landmark_characterisation_/180954", "title"=>"Landmark characterisation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:20:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510678"], "description"=>"<p>Linear measurements displayed above for each specimen when scaled to the same volume as <i>M. cataphractus.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["symphyseal", "width", "mandibles"], "article_id"=>181167, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Length_Symphyseal_Length_Angle_and_Width_for_each_of_the_mandibles_used_in_this_study_/181167", "title"=>"Length, Symphyseal Length, Angle and Width for each of the mandibles used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:21:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510242"], "description"=>"<p>Calculation and standardisation of error in the 3D models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["standardisation", "3d"], "article_id"=>180727, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Calculation_and_standardisation_of_error_in_the_3D_models_/180727", "title"=>"Calculation and standardisation of error in the 3D models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:18:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510766"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological variables are in order with AICc-best first. Columns correspond to parameter estimates for each morphological variable, log-likelihood, of morphological variable given data, AICc scores, ΔAICc from AICc-best, and Akaike weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphological", "variables", "predicting", "hi-res"], "article_id"=>181249, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_morphological_variables_predicting_shake_strain_for_hi_res_FEMs_/181249", "title"=>"Comparison of morphological variables predicting shake strain for hi-res FEMs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:21:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510551"], "description"=>"<p>Bite force estimates for natural sized and volume rescaled models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "sized", "rescaled"], "article_id"=>181042, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bite_force_estimates_for_natural_sized_and_volume_rescaled_models_/181042", "title"=>"Bite force estimates for natural sized and volume rescaled models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:20:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510309"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological variables are in order with AICc-best first. Columns correspond to parameter estimates for each morphological variable, log-likelihood of morphological variable given data, AICc scores, ΔAICc from AICc-best, and Akaike weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphological", "variables", "predicting", "simplified", "crocodile"], "article_id"=>180799, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_morphological_variables_for_predicting_twist_strain_in_a_simplified_beam_representation_of_a_crocodile_mandible_/180799", "title"=>"Comparison of morphological variables for predicting twist strain in a simplified beam representation of a crocodile mandible.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:19:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510353"], "description"=>"<p>Specimen scan information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>180832, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Specimen_scan_information_/180832", "title"=>"Specimen scan information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:19:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508444"], "description"=>"<p>Principal component 1 (PC1) versus principal component 2 (PC2) from geometric morphometric analysis Taxon abbreviations: Ot, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>; Cm, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>; Cng, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; Ci, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; Cj, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; Mc, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; Ts, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>178925, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Principal_component_plot_/178925", "title"=>"Principal component plot.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:09:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510018"], "description"=>"<p>Natural logarithms of FEM predicted bite force (red squares) and <i>in vivo</i> bite force (blue diamonds), plotted against body mass. Bite force is for rear bites, <i>in vivo</i> bite force data from Erickson <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Erickson1\" target=\"_blank\">[47]</a>. For the FEMs, body mass was calculated from skull volume using the equation <i>log10 body mass = log10 (skull volume x 0.9336+1.9763)</i> using data from McHenry <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-McHenry3\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>. Slopes of regression lines are similar, but the difference in intercept means that the <i>in vivo</i> bite force is a factor of approximately 1.6 times the FEM predicted bite force for crocodilians of a given mass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fem", "predictions"], "article_id"=>180510, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g029", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_FEM_predictions_and_i_in_vivo_i_measurements_of_bite_force_/180510", "title"=>"Comparison of FEM predictions and <i>in vivo</i> measurements of bite force.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:17:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/509512"], "description"=>"<p>Direct comparison of mandible response to equal <i>biting</i> and <i>shaking</i> loads at the most anterior bite point (front). Strain magnitude is higher under the <i>biting</i> loads; the difference is noticeable for longirostrine (A–C) and mesorostrine (D–F) taxa. Taxon labels: A, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>; B, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; C, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; D, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; E, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; F, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>; G, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>179995, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g025", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Strain_plot_response_to_equal_i_biting_i_and_i_twisting_i_loads_/179995", "title"=>"Strain plot response to equal <i>biting</i> and <i>twisting</i> loads.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:14:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507631"], "description"=>"<p>Model variations used to explore relationship between strain and linear variables in the first set of beam models. Abbreviations are defined as follows: (CL, CSL; VA, VW) – Constant length and symphyseal length, variable angle and width. (CL, CW; VSL, VA) – Constant length and width, variable symphyseal length and angle. (CA, CW; VSL, VL) – Constant angle and width, variable symphyseal length and length. (CSL, CW; VL, VA) – Constant symphyseal length and width, variable length and angle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models"], "article_id"=>178124, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Variations_for_beam_models_1_/178124", "title"=>"Variations for beam models #1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:04:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510130"], "description"=>"<p>Pretension values are on a ‘per beam’ basis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pretensions"], "article_id"=>180615, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Beam_pretensions_used_for_functional_muscle_groups_/180615", "title"=>"Beam pretensions used for functional muscle groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:18:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507533"], "description"=>"<p>(A), linear measurements of mandible; (B), landmark locations. See text for explanation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landmarks"], "article_id"=>178022, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Linear_measurements_and_landmarks_for_mandible_/178022", "title"=>"Linear measurements and landmarks for mandible.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:04:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/509084"], "description"=>"<p>Stress contour plots for beam model based on <i>M. cataphractus</i> for <i>biting</i> (A), <i>shaking</i> (B), and <i>twisting</i> (C) loading regimes. The models are shown from lateral (left), anterior (middle) and dorsal (right) views. The regions of high tensile (reds) and compressive (blues) stresses are shown. Deformations are exaggerated to better illustrate the structural response to loads. The general pattern of strain is similar for all beam models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contour", "plots"], "article_id"=>179575, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g022", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Stress_contour_plots_for_beam_models_/179575", "title"=>"Stress contour plots for beam models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508020"], "description"=>"<p>Teeth used in simulating front, mid and back bite points are shown in orange. <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i> (A), <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i> (B), <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i> (C), <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i> (D), <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i> (E), <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i> (F), <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i> (G).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["points"], "article_id"=>178513, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bite_points_for_bite_shake_and_twist_/178513", "title"=>"Bite points for bite, shake and twist.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:06:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508516"], "description"=>"<p>Wireframe (left) of mandible from dorsal and lateral perspectives illustrates the change in shape along PC1 axis. Note the longer symphyses at higher PC1 values. The chart in the centre shows the value of each morphological variable (e.g. symphyseal length) at a given PC value, as a percentage of the maximal value for that morphological variable. Specimens are plotted according to their respective PC1 values (centre right). Phylogram (right) shows poor correlation of specimen PC1 scores with phylogeny. Phylogeny based upon the results of Erickson and colleagues <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Erickson1\" target=\"_blank\">[47]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>178999, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Quantification_of_Principal_Component_1_PC1_/178999", "title"=>"Quantification of Principal Component 1 (PC1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:09:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508924"], "description"=>"<p>Strain in the first set of simple beam models, plotted against morphological variables (from top) length, symphyseal length, angle, and width, for <i>biting</i> (left), <i>shaking</i> (middle) and <i>twisting</i> (right) loads. Note the strong correlation between bite and overall length, shake and symphyseal length, and twist and angle. Data is plotted as natural logarithms of linear measurements (mm) and angles (degrees). Model abbreviations are as follows: (CL-CSL-VA-VW) – Constant length and symphyseal length, variable angle and width. (CL-CW-VSL-VA) – Constant length and width, variable symphyseal length and angle. (CA-CW-VSL-VL) – Constant angle and width, variable symphyseal length and length. (CSL-CW-VL-VA) – Constant symphyseal length and width, variable length and angle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models"], "article_id"=>179420, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g021", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Strain_for_simple_beam_models_1_/179420", "title"=>"Strain for simple beam models #1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:11:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510430"], "description"=>"<p>Jaw adductor muscles in crocodilians. Left column summarises the system used by lordansky (1964) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Iordansky1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>; left centre column shows the abbreviations for each muscle name used by Cleuren et al. (1995) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Cleuren1\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>. Right centre, functional groupings used to generate a dry-skull method for reptiles in this study. Right, number of beams used to represent each muscle in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["groups"], "article_id"=>180920, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Jaw_muscle_groups_in_crocs_/180920", "title"=>"Jaw muscle groups in crocs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:19:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/509881"], "description"=>"<p>Left: Strain response of mandibles when subject to equal bite force (TeT), plotted against length for (from top) front, mid and back bites. Right: Strain response of mandibles at maximal bite force (NoLLC), plotted against length for (from top) front, mid and back bites. In the TeT load cases, muscle forces are adjusted so that all models experience the same bite force as the <i>M. cataphractus</i> model for each bite point; with the exception of the <i>Osteolaemus</i> model, this has little effect on the qualitative pattern of results, with longirostrine taxa exhibiting higher strain in TeT and NoLLC load cases. Data is plotted as natural logarithms of linear measurements (mm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biting", "loads", "tet"], "article_id"=>180367, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g028", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Strain_in_biting_loads_for_TeT_and_NoLLC_/180367", "title"=>"Strain in biting loads for TeT and NoLLC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:16:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506955"], "description"=>"<p>Second moments of area correspond to the geometry of long and short symphysis crocodilians. (A) shows the beam approximation of mandibles with long and short symphyseal lengths. (B) shows the change in second moment of area (length<sup>4</sup>) for long and short symphyseal beam models; these were calculated at discrete locations from the tip (anterior) of each mandible, as a conceptual illustration of the differences in second moments of area between the two morphologies. Corresponding locations are shown with dotted lines and the Y axis is a uniform arbitrary scale throughout. (C) shows (from top) the loading regimes associated with <i>shaking</i>, <i>biting</i> and <i>twisting</i>; where red arrows represent forces and black crosses represent restraints.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["moments"], "article_id"=>177467, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Second_moments_of_area_for_beam_models_/177467", "title"=>"Second moments of area for beam models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:01:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/509774"], "description"=>"<p>Peak strain under twist loads plotted against symphyseal length for beam (left) and FE (right) models. Note the relationship between symphyseal length and strain predicted by beam models is inverted in the complex FE models; additionally, beam models fail to predict ranked order under twisting. Data is plotted as natural logarithms of linear measurements (mm).Taxon abbreviations are as follows: O.t, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>; C.ng, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; C.i, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; C.j, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; M.c, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; T.s, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>; C.m, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["loads", "fe"], "article_id"=>180263, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g027", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Peak_strain_under_twist_loads_for_beam_and_FE_models_/180263", "title"=>"Peak strain under twist loads for beam and FE models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510203"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological variables are in order with AICc-best first. Columns correspond to parameter estimates for each model, log-likelihood of model given data, AICc scores, ΔAICc from AICc-best, and Akaike weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphological", "variables", "predicting", "simplified", "crocodile"], "article_id"=>180693, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_morphological_variables_for_predicting_shake_strain_in_a_simplified_beam_representation_of_a_crocodile_mandible_/180693", "title"=>"Comparison of morphological variables for predicting shake strain in a simplified beam representation of a crocodile mandible.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:18:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510635"], "description"=>"<p>Performance of FEA models is assessed by the 95% strain values for <i>biting</i>, <i>shaking</i>, and <i>twisting.</i></p><p>Taxon abbreviations are as follows: <i>Ot, Osteolaemus tetraspis; Cm, Crocodylus moreletii; Cng, Crocodylus novaeguineae; Ci, Crocodylus intermedius; Cj, Crocodylus johnstoni; Mc, Mecistops cataphractus; Ts, Tomistoma schlegelii</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fe"], "article_id"=>181123, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Ranked_performance_of_beam_and_FE_models_/181123", "title"=>"Ranked performance of beam and FE models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508640"], "description"=>"<p>Wireframe (left) of mandible from dorsal and lateral perspectives illustrates decreasing mandible robustness with increasing PC2 values. The chart in the centre shows the value of each morphological variable (e.g. symphyseal length) at a given PC value, as a percentage of the maximal value for that morphological variable. Specimens are plotted according to their respective PC2 values (centre right). Phylogram (right) shows poor correlation of specimen PC2 scores with phylogeny. Phylogeny based upon the results of Erickson and colleagues <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Erickson1\" target=\"_blank\">[47]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Computational biology", "biophysics", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>179124, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Quantification_of_Principal_Component_2_PC2_/179124", "title"=>"Quantification of Principal Component 2 (PC2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:10:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506579"], "description"=>"<p>Dorsal view of various skulls, showing the spectrum of rostral proportions in (from top) crocodilians, odontocetes, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs and thalattosuchians. Skulls are resized to equivalent width at the back of the skull and for each group longirostrine taxa are on the right, brevirostrine on the left. Taxa shown are <i>Caiman latirostris</i> (A), <i>Gavialis gangeticus</i> (B), <i>Feresa attenuata</i> (C), <i>Platanista gangetica</i> (D), <i>Leptocleidus capensis</i> (E), <i>Dolichorhynchops osborni</i> (F), <i>Temnodontosaurus eurycephalus</i> (G), <i>Ophthalmosaurus icenicus</i> (H), <i>Suchodus brachyrhynchus</i> (I), <i>Steneosaurus gracilirostris</i> (J). Scale bars = 10 cm. Based on photos by CRM of specimen BMNH 86.10.4.2 (A), BMNH 1935.6.4.1 (B), BMNH 1897.6.30.1 (C) and USNM 504917 (D), after Cruichshank <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Cruickshank1\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a> (E), after O’Keefe <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-OKeefe1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a> (F) based on fossil specimen BMNH R1157 illustrated by Owen <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Owen1\" target=\"_blank\">[62]</a> (G), after Motani <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Motani2\" target=\"_blank\">[63]</a> (H), after Andrews <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-Andrews1\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>(I), after Mueller-Töwe <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873#pone.0053873-MuellerTwe1\" target=\"_blank\">[65]</a>(J).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rostral", "proportions"], "article_id"=>177079, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Spectrum_of_rostral_proportions_in_marine_tetrapods_/177079", "title"=>"Spectrum of rostral proportions in marine tetrapods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:58:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510272"], "description"=>"<p>Mesh resolution for ‘complex’ FE models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fe"], "article_id"=>180765, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mesh_resolution_for_complex_FE_models_/180765", "title"=>"Mesh resolution for ‘complex’ FE models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:19:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510591"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological variables are in order with AICc-best first. Columns correspond to parameter estimates for each morphological variable, log-likelihood, of morphological variable given data, AICc scores, ΔAICc from AICc-best, and Akaike weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphological", "variables", "predicting", "hi-res"], "article_id"=>181077, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_morphological_variables_predicting_bite_strain_for_hi_res_FEMs_/181077", "title"=>"Comparison of morphological variables predicting bite strain for hi-res FEMs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:20:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/510724"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological variables are in order with AICc-best first. Columns correspond to parameter estimates for each morphological variable, log-likelihood, of morphological variable given data, AICc scores, ΔAICc from AICc-best, and Akaike weight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphological", "variables", "predicting", "hi-res"], "article_id"=>181208, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.t016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_morphological_variables_predicting_twist_strain_for_hi_res_FEMs_/181208", "title"=>"Comparison of morphological variables predicting twist strain for hi-res FEMs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:21:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/508778"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of bite force generated by the high resolution FEMs, plotted against outlever length (distance from jaw hinge axis to bite point). Charts to right show natural logarithm transformed data. (A) and (B) show results from models at ‘natural’ sizes, (C) and (D) show results from models rescaled to the volume of the <i>M. cataphractus</i> model. Note the strong correlation between volume-scaled bite force and outlever (D). Front, mid, and rear bites for each FEM are shown. Taxon abbreviations: O.t, <i>Osteolaemus tetraspis</i>; C.ng, <i>Crocodylus novaeguineae</i>; C.i, <i>Crocodylus intermedius</i>; C.j, <i>Crocodylus johnstoni</i>; M.c, <i>Mecistops cataphractus</i>; T.s, <i>Tomistoma schlegelii</i>; C.m, <i>Crocodylus moreletii</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "resolutions"], "article_id"=>179265, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bite_force_estimates_for_high_resolutions_FEMs_/179265", "title"=>"Bite force estimates for high resolutions FEMs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:10:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507291"], "description"=>"<p>The mask (shown in blue) represents the segmented/selected voxels that will be used to create isosurfaces. The three different contour qualities represent the 3D approximation of the mask and will form the isosurface. Contour error is the measured distance between the isosurface contour and the mask it was generated from (lower left of image).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["isosurface", "models"], "article_id"=>177778, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Quality_of_isosurface_models_and_error_quantification_/177778", "title"=>"Quality of isosurface models and error quantification.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:02:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507429"], "description"=>"<p>Mesh optimisation and solid mesh generation was performed using Harpoon (SHARC). The left images show the complex internal geometry captured from isosurface generation. The middle column shows removal of complex internal geometry whilst still retaining important geometrical features. Images at right show the final solid mesh.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["optimisation", "mesh"], "article_id"=>177919, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Physics", "Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Christopher W. Walmsley", "Peter D. Smits", "Michelle R. Quayle", "Matthew R. McCurry", "Heather S. Richards", "Christopher C. Oldfield", "Stephen Wroe", "Phillip D. Clausen", "Colin R. McHenry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053873.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mesh_optimisation_and_solid_mesh_generation_/177919", "title"=>"Mesh optimisation and solid mesh generation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 17:03:32"}

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Relative Metric

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