Generalisation of New Sequence Knowledge Depends on Response Modality
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{"title"=>"Generalisation of New Sequence Knowledge Depends on Response Modality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Clive R.", "last_name"=>"Rosenthal", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005339563"}, {"first_name"=>"Tammy W.C.", "last_name"=>"Ng", "scopus_author_id"=>"55346091000"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Kennard", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101956391"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873494583", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0053990", "pui"=>"368294471", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23393553", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84873494583"}, "id"=>"2e835611-59e4-3461-8bf2-8e3a326392e3", "abstract"=>"New visuomotor skills can guide behaviour in novel situations. Prior studies indicate that learning a visuospatial sequence via responses based on manual key presses leads to effector- and response-independent knowledge. Little is known, however, about the extent to which new sequence knowledge can generalise, and, thereby guide behaviour, outside of the manual response modality. Here, we examined whether learning a visuospatial sequence either via manual (key presses, without eye movements), oculomotor (obligatory eye movements), or perceptual (covert reorienting of visuospatial attention) responses supported generalisation to direct and indirect tests administered either in the same (baseline conditions) or a novel response modality (transfer conditions) with respect to initial study. Direct tests measured the use of conscious knowledge about the studied sequence, whereas the indirect tests did not ostensibly draw on the study phase and measured response priming. Oculomotor learning supported the use of conscious knowledge on the manual direct tests, whereas manual learning supported generalisation to the oculomotor direct tests but did not support the conscious use of knowledge. Sequence knowledge acquired via perceptual responses did not generalise onto any of the manual tests. Manual, oculomotor, and perceptual sequence learning all supported generalisation in the baseline conditions. Notably, the manual baseline condition and the manual to oculomotor transfer condition differed in the magnitude of general skill acquired during the study phase; however, general skill did not predict performance on the post-study tests. The results demonstrated that generalisation was only affected by the responses used to initially code the visuospatial sequence when new knowledge was applied to a novel response modality. We interpret these results in terms of response-effect distinctiveness, the availability of integrated effector- and motor-plan based information, and discuss their implications for neurocognitive accounts of sequence learning.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/generalisation-new-sequence-knowledge-depends-response-modality", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494908"], "description"=>"<p>The difference in response latencies associated with the six-element studied and nonstudied recognition probes was used to measure priming. Mean response latencies (RTs or saccade latencies) to studied and nonstudied recognition sequences at positions 3–6 (predictable positions) are shown – position 3 represents the earliest point at which the (second-order conditional) response context can induce priming. Mean recognition priming scores provide an indirect (procedural) test of sequence knowledge (latencies associated with responses to studied positions subtracted from the corresponding RTs to nonstudied positions). Results are combined and presented for collapsed “early” 3–4 (p3/p4) and “late” 5–6 (p5/p6) positions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["priming", "administered", "baseline", "conditions"], "article_id"=>165435, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Clive R. Rosenthal", "Tammy W. C. Ng", "Christopher Kennard"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053990.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_priming_on_the_recognition_tests_that_were_administered_in_the_baseline_and_transfer_conditions_experiments_1_and_2_/165435", "title"=>"Response priming on the recognition tests that were administered in the baseline and transfer conditions (experiments 1 and 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 15:55:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494755"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Mean proportions of studied and nonstudied (baseline) second-order conditional triplets generated for m-m and o-o baseline and m-o and o-m transfer conditions, under inclusion and exclusion test instructions. Both baseline conditions revealed evidence of conscious control over self-generated responses after manual and oculomotor sequence learning (i.e., I studied > E studied; I studied > I nonstudied (baseline); E studied  =  E nonstudied (baseline)), whereas in the transfer conditions, conscious control over self-generated responses was evident only in the o-m condition, but knowledge was nonetheless above baseline in the m-o condition; and (b) Mean recognition confidence ratings assigned to the 24 six-item sequences revealed accurate recognition memory for the studied sequence in the baseline conditions and o-m transfer condition. Studied sequences were allocated a confidence rating between 1 and 3, whereas nonstudied sequences were allocated a rating between 4 and 6.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cued-generation", "tasks", "administered"], "article_id"=>165273, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Clive R. Rosenthal", "Tammy W. C. Ng", "Christopher Kennard"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053990.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_on_the_cued_generation_tasks_and_recognition_memory_tests_administered_in_experiment_1_/165273", "title"=>"Performance on the cued-generation tasks and recognition memory tests administered in experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 15:54:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494826"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Mean proportions of studied and nonstudied (baseline) second-order conditional triplets generated for the baseline perceptual cued-generation task and the p-m transfer condition manual cued-generation task, under inclusion and exclusion test instructions; and (b). Mean recognition confidence ratings revealed recognition memory for the studied sequence in the baseline p-p condition (perceptual recognition test), but no evidence of recognition memory in the p-m transfer condition (manual recognition test). Studied sequences were allocated a confidence rating between 1 and 3, whereas nonstudied sequences were allocated a rating between 4 and 6.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cued-generation", "tasks", "administered"], "article_id"=>165349, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Clive R. Rosenthal", "Tammy W. C. Ng", "Christopher Kennard"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053990.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_on_the_cued_generation_tasks_and_recognition_tests_administered_in_experiment_2_/165349", "title"=>"Performance on the cued-generation tasks and recognition tests administered in experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 15:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494667"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Significant sequence knowledge was evident in the baseline (m-m, o-o) and transfer (m-o, o-m) conditions on the first intra-modality indirect test (T1 [non-studied sequence], blocks 14 vs. 13). The magnitude of general skill acquired across the entire study phase on the manual SRT task was significantly different between the m-m and m-o conditions; however, this difference did not lead to a significant between-condition difference in the magnitude of sequence-specific knowledge (T1, T2), and the variability in general skill did not predict performance on the post-study tests administered either in the same or a different modality as initial study. (b) The second indirect test (T2) revealed evidence of sequence-specific knowledge in the m-m and o-o baseline conditions and significant transfer in the m-<u>o</u>, but not o-<u>m</u>, condition. P denotes a pseudorandom practice block of trials (blocks 1 and 15); S denotes the target sequence block; and T denotes the indirect tests, which were based on the same structural properties as the target sequence, but had a different ordinal sequence of locations. Error bars correspond the S.E.M.'s.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["times", "saccade", "latencies", "oculomotor", "srt", "indirect", "sequence-specific", "t2", "modality", "o-m", "m-o"], "article_id"=>165176, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Clive R. Rosenthal", "Tammy W. C. Ng", "Christopher Kennard"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053990.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_reaction_times_and_saccade_latencies_across_manual_and_oculomotor_SRT_tasks_respectively_and_two_indirect_tests_of_sequence_specific_knowledge_T1_intra_response_modality_T2_inter_response_modality_in_o_m_and_m_o_transfer_conditions_/165176", "title"=>"Mean reaction times and saccade latencies across manual and oculomotor SRT tasks, respectively, and two indirect tests of sequence-specific knowledge (T1 [intra-response modality]; T2 [inter-response modality in o-m and m-o transfer conditions]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 15:54:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494574"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Participants were instructed to respond by directing their gaze to the location of each target stimulus. Saccade onset was detected in real time and automatically using a velocity criterion (the first two consecutive data points that corresponded to an increase in instantaneous velocity above 30° per second). A target stimulus remained on-screen for 100 ms after a response was detected, or, if no response was detected, the target was extinguished after 5000 ms had elapsed. If an incorrect response was detected, a 2000 Hz (100 ms) tone was played 50 ms after the end of the saccade (ES). (b) Saccade endpoints of the first saccadic response that landed within the full-screen vertical area subtended by the horizontal width of one of the four boxes containing the target were categorised as a correct response. Saccade endpoints that occurred outside one of the four designated response regions were categorised as a location error, and, as with a correct response, also terminated a trial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trials", "oculomotor", "srt"], "article_id"=>165093, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Clive R. Rosenthal", "Tammy W. C. Ng", "Christopher Kennard"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053990.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_showing_three_trials_of_the_oculomotor_SRT_task_/165093", "title"=>"Schematic showing three trials of the oculomotor SRT task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 15:53:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494472"], "description"=>"<p>(1) Study phase and indirect tests of sequence knowledge. Schematic shows the structure of the baseline (exp. 1: m-m, o-o; exp. 2: p-p) and transfer conditions (experiment 1: m-o, o-m; experiment 2: p-m). Responses to each visual target required a manual key press (exp. 1: manual SRT task, performed without eye movements), an obligatory eye movement (exp. 1: oculomotor SRT task, involving saccade-contingent stimulus offset), or a covert shift of visuospatial attention (exp. 2: perceptual sequence learning task). Indirect tests of sequence-specific knowledge (a block of trials based on a nonstudied second-order conditional sequence) were administered on blocks 14 (vs. 13 [target sequence block]) (T1, intra-response modality) and 17 (vs. 16 [target sequence block]) (T2, inter-response modality in m-o and o-m transfer conditions). P denotes a pseudorandom practice block of trials (blocks 1 and 15); S denotes a target sequence block; and, T denotes the indirect tests. (2) Post-study direct and indirect tests in the baseline and transfer conditions: (a) sequence awareness questionnaire; (b) schematic of single-trial event sequence used on manual, oculomotor, and perceptual versions of inclusion-exclusion cued-generation task. Each trial was comprised of two cues and four self-generated responses. Red (exclusion test) or green (inclusion test) question marks appeared (block-wise) after the two cues as the prompt to self-generate four manual (m-<u>m</u>, o-<u>m</u>, p-<u>m</u>), oculomotor (o-<u>o</u>, m-<u>o</u>) or vocal (p-<u>p</u>) responses that were either different from (exclusion test) or the same as (inclusion test) the studied sequence; and (c) schematic of the manual (m-<u>m</u>, o-<u>m</u>, p-<u>m</u>), oculomotor (o-<u>o</u>, m-<u>o</u>), and perceptual (p-<u>p</u>) versions of the “old”/“new” recognition memory test (12 studied/“old”; 12 nonstudied/“new”). Participants determined whether each six-element sequence was “old” or “new”, and then rated their confidence on a 6-point scale. In summary, participants in the baseline conditions continued to respond using versions of the tests that were implemented in the same response modality as the study phase and indirect tests (T1, T2). Participants in the transfer conditions continued to respond using versions of the tests that were implemented in a novel response modality with respect to the study phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["setup", "experiments"], "article_id"=>164991, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Clive R. Rosenthal", "Tammy W. C. Ng", "Christopher Kennard"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053990.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_setup_and_design_in_experiments_1_and_2_/164991", "title"=>"Experimental setup and design in experiments 1 and 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 15:53:12"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[261, 444, 554, 655, 748, 834, 923, 1004, 1089, 1170, 1244, 1315, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 449, 572, 676, 775, 866, 955, 1041, 1127, 1213, 1290, 1370, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}]}
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