BatSLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Biomimetic Sonar
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{"title"=>"BatSLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Biomimetic Sonar", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jan", "last_name"=>"Steckel", "scopus_author_id"=>"25958439900"}, {"first_name"=>"Herbert", "last_name"=>"Peremans", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601999875"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23365647", "sgr"=>"84872850897", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0054076", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872850897", "pui"=>"368187494", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"2d3dab9e-10e3-3501-b8c8-e1e0068881b6", "abstract"=>"We propose to combine a biomimetic navigation model which solves a simultaneous localization and mapping task with a biomimetic sonar mounted on a mobile robot to address two related questions. First, can robotic sonar sensing lead to intelligent interactions with complex environments? Second, can we model sonar based spatial orientation and the construction of spatial maps by bats? To address these questions we adapt the mapping module of RatSLAM, a previously published navigation system based on computational models of the rodent hippocampus. We analyze the performance of the proposed robotic implementation operating in the real world. We conclude that the biomimetic navigation model operating on the information from the biomimetic sonar allows an autonomous agent to map unmodified (office) environments efficiently and consistently. Furthermore, these results also show that successful navigation does not require the readings of the biomimetic sonar to be interpreted in terms of individual objects/landmarks in the environment. We argue that the system has applications in robotics as well as in the field of biology as a simple, first order, model for sonar based spatial orientation and map building", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/batslam-simultaneous-localization-mapping-using-biomimetic-sonar", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>33, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>33}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>11}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Croatia"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501302"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of the core system that makes up the BatSLAM mapping module. Pose cell networks interact with local view cell networks to generate robust position estimates of a mobile agent. Sensor data extracted from the sonar system (indicated by Current Local View Templates) are compared to a database of previously encountered templates. If a template is recognized, the local view cell becomes active, correcting the position estimate in the pose cell network.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>171829, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BatSLAM_Core_System_/171829", "title"=>"BatSLAM Core System.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:30:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/500845"], "description"=>"<p>The emitter radiation patterns, the spatial sensitivity patterns for the left and the right ear, the ERTF for the left and right ear and the ERTF Interaural Intensity Difference patterns on a logarithmic scale. The grid lines are spaced 30°, the contour lines 3 dB. Note that the left and right pinna patterns are not exact mirror images, due to the asymmetric morphology of the scanned specimen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["directivity"], "article_id"=>171381, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sonar_System_directivity_patterns_/171381", "title"=>"Sonar System directivity patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:23:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501145"], "description"=>"<p>The euclidean distances as a function of robot displacement for a typical position on the map (red circle), and for an ambiguous position on the map (red cross). The coordinate system used for the calculation is shown for clarity. The blue curves indicate the similarity regions, i.e. the outer boundary of the region wherein the local view templates are being recognized as similar to the original local view template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>171668, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Local_View_Similarity_Regions_/171668", "title"=>"Local View Similarity Regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:27:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/478273"], "description"=>"<div><p>We propose to combine a biomimetic navigation model which solves a simultaneous localization and mapping task with a biomimetic sonar mounted on a mobile robot to address two related questions. First, can robotic sonar sensing lead to intelligent interactions with complex environments? Second, can we model sonar based spatial orientation and the construction of spatial maps by bats? To address these questions we adapt the mapping module of RatSLAM, a previously published navigation system based on computational models of the rodent hippocampus. We analyze the performance of the proposed robotic implementation operating in the real world. We conclude that the biomimetic navigation model operating on the information from the biomimetic sonar allows an autonomous agent to map unmodified (office) environments efficiently and consistently. Furthermore, these results also show that successful navigation does not require the readings of the biomimetic sonar to be interpreted in terms of individual objects/landmarks in the environment. We argue that the system has applications in robotics as well as in the field of biology as a simple, first order, model for sonar based spatial orientation and map building.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simultaneous", "localization", "biomimetic", "sonar"], "article_id"=>154242, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>51, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/BatSLAM_Simultaneous_Localization_and_Mapping_Using_Biomimetic_Sonar__/154242", "title"=>"BatSLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Biomimetic Sonar", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 01:10:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501217"], "description"=>"<p>After signal reception by microphones inserted in the ear canals of plastic pinna replica's, the signals are processed by a functional model of a mammalian cochlea. The resulting cochleograms are smoothed and subsampled before being passed to the hippocampal core model as local view templates. The model constructs a database of local view templates. The similarity between the current local view template and the ones in the database determines the activity pattern over the view cell network. The pose cell network combines motor commands (proprioception) and cochleograms (exteroception) to produce an estimate of the current robot pose (position and orientation). An experience map is built from experience nodes representing unique combinations of the activity state of the pose cell network and that of the view cell network and linked by transitions representing robot displacements. The experience map (bottom right) is a robust and stable topological map of the environment with semi-metric properties. If only proprioception and path integration is used without environmental information from the sonar sensor, no consistent map can be constructed (bottom left).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>171740, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BatSLAM_model_processing_steps_/171740", "title"=>"BatSLAM model processing steps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501059"], "description"=>"<p>The amount and the spatial distribution of ambiguity within the local view templates is shown to illustrate the performance of the BatSLAM system in typical office environments. a) The detailed experience map of the environment with the floor plan of the office building for reference. The color coding indicates the amount of ambiguity that exists for that particular position (see text). The red dots in b)–d) indicate the position where a particular local view template is encountered the first time. The black dots indicate where that same local view template is encountered again. The cochleograms show the actual local view template data. e) A local view template that is encountered only once.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>171577, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BatSLAM_Mapping_Ambiguities_/171577", "title"=>"BatSLAM Mapping Ambiguities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:26:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/500983"], "description"=>"<p>Mapping result of an unmodified office environment using BatSLAM. a) The detailed experience map of the environment with the floor plan of the office building for reference. b) The map generated by applying a path integration algorithm directly to the motor commands.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>171509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BatSLAM_Mapping_Result_/171509", "title"=>"BatSLAM Mapping Result.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:25:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/500756"], "description"=>"<p>The sonar system consists of an emitter and two receivers embedded in plastic replica of the bat's pinnae. a) Overview of the different functional blocks of the sonar system: digital subsystem with USB interface and 2 analog to digital converters; receiver subsystem containing 2 amplifiers and microphones; emitter subsystem containing digital to analog converter, high voltage amplifier and Polaroid transducer. b) Photograph of the constructed sonar head, showing the Polaroid transducer (1) and the microphones inserted in the pinna replica's (2). The position of the microphones is indicated by the black arrows.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sonar"], "article_id"=>171282, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detail_of_the_used_sonar_system_/171282", "title"=>"Detail of the used sonar system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:21:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/500929"], "description"=>"<p>Mapping result in a small scale environment using BatSLAM and a local positioning system as baseline. Subsets a–d) show intermediate trajectories generated by BatSLAM during the first few loops. In subset e) the red trace shows the robot trajectory measured with the Stargazer, the blue trace shows the robot trajectory in experience space as generated by BatSLAM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["batslam"], "article_id"=>171455, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jan Steckel", "Herbert Peremans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054076.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Small_Scale_BatSLAM_Mapping_accuracy_/171455", "title"=>"Small-Scale BatSLAM Mapping accuracy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-24 00:24:15"}

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Relative Metric

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