Subliminal Salience Search Illustrated: EEG Identity and Deception Detection on the Fringe of Awareness
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{"title"=>"Subliminal Salience Search Illustrated: EEG Identity and Deception Detection on the Fringe of Awareness", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Howard", "last_name"=>"Bowman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006642106"}, {"first_name"=>"Marco", "last_name"=>"Filetti", "scopus_author_id"=>"55567622400"}, {"first_name"=>"Dirk", "last_name"=>"Janssen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197210393"}, {"first_name"=>"Li", "last_name"=>"Su", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199781122"}, {"first_name"=>"Abdulmajeed", "last_name"=>"Alsufyani", "scopus_author_id"=>"55567418500"}, {"first_name"=>"Brad", "last_name"=>"Wyble", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506575232"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872810647", "pui"=>"368176397", "sgr"=>"84872810647", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23372697", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0054258"}, "id"=>"d2420c73-5b62-3aca-8f59-005a82493545", "abstract"=>"We propose a novel deception detection system based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). One motivation for the new method is to present stimuli on the fringe of awareness, such that it is more difficult for deceivers to confound the deception test using countermeasures. The proposed system is able to detect identity deception (by using the first names of participants) with a 100% hit rate (at an alpha level of 0.05). To achieve this, we extended the classic Event-Related Potential (ERP) techniques (such as peak-to-peak) by applying Randomisation, a form of Monte Carlo resampling, which we used to detect deception at an individual level. In order to make the deployment of the system simple and rapid, we utilised data from three electrodes only: Fz, Cz and Pz. We then combined data from the three electrodes using Fisher's method so that each participant was assigned a single p-value, which represents the combined probability that a specific participant was being deceptive. We also present subliminal salience search as a general method to determine what participants find salient by detecting breakthrough into conscious awareness using EEG.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/subliminal-salience-search-illustrated-eeg-identity-deception-detection-fringe-awareness", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Philosophy"=>1, "Psychology"=>33, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>33}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Slovakia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504089"], "description"=>"<p>Peak-to-peak differences (relative to Irrelevant1) are shown here. Note that Probe is larger than Irrelevant2, for most participants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["p3b-pz", "sizes"], "article_id"=>174605, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Peak_to_Peak_P3b_Pz_sizes_across_the_fifteen_participants_/174605", "title"=>"Peak-to-Peak P3b-Pz sizes across the fifteen participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:16:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503907"], "description"=>"<p>Fisher (P3a-Fz, P3a-Cz, P3b-Pz combined) null hypothesis distributions for three participants (subjects 3, 11 and 14; see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258#pone-0054258-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>) using Fisher's method. Black vertical lines mark true observed Fisher scores and p-value regions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fisher"], "article_id"=>174427, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selection_of_Fisher_score_distributions_/174427", "title"=>"Selection of Fisher score distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:13:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504059"], "description"=>"<p>This table shows peak-to-peak differences (relative to Irrelevant1) for both Probe and Irrelevant2 conditions. Note that Probe is consistently larger than Irrelevant2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["p3a", "sizes", "15"], "article_id"=>174572, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Peak_to_peak_P3a_sizes_for_all_15_participants_/174572", "title"=>"Peak-to-peak P3a sizes for all 15 participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:16:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504197"], "description"=>"<p>Shown above are the results for the empirical false alarm testing procedure that was applied to our control group. The outcomes that were significant at an alpha level of p<0.05 are indicated by an asterisk. Three false alarms are present. The columns refer to all possible permutations, given that the three Irrelevant conditions were assigned a different role of Probe, Irrelevant1 and Irrelevant2 in each permutation. This was described in section 2.11.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "physiology", "neuroscience", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>174714, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Empirical_false_alarm_test_results_/174714", "title"=>"Empirical false alarm test results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:18:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/477633", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/477635", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/477636", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/477637", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/477638", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/477639"], "description"=>"<div><p>We propose a novel deception detection system based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). One motivation for the new method is to present stimuli on the fringe of awareness, such that it is more difficult for deceivers to confound the deception test using countermeasures. The proposed system is able to detect identity deception (by using the first names of participants) with a 100% hit rate (at an alpha level of 0.05). To achieve this, we extended the classic Event-Related Potential (ERP) techniques (such as peak-to-peak) by applying Randomisation, a form of Monte Carlo resampling, which we used to detect deception at an individual level. In order to make the deployment of the system simple and rapid, we utilised data from three electrodes only: Fz, Cz and Pz. We then combined data from the three electrodes using Fisher's method so that each participant was assigned a single p-value, which represents the combined probability that a specific participant was being deceptive. We also present subliminal salience search as a general method to determine what participants find salient by detecting breakthrough into conscious awareness using EEG.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subliminal", "salience", "eeg", "deception", "detection", "fringe", "awareness"], "article_id"=>154074, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>43, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Subliminal_Salience_Search_Illustrated_EEG_Identity_and_Deception_Detection_on_the_Fringe_of_Awareness__/154074", "title"=>"Subliminal Salience Search Illustrated: EEG Identity and Deception Detection on the Fringe of Awareness", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:07:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504022"], "description"=>"<p>The number of times that a positive answer was given to the “Did you see your name?” question is reported in this table, for each trial type. All participants followed our instructions correctly, responding “Yes” almost exclusively after trials that contained their <i>Fake</i> name.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["times", "was", "answered"], "article_id"=>174536, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_times_that_8220_Yes_8221_was_answered_at_the_end_of_each_trial_type_/174536", "title"=>"Number of times that “Yes” was answered at the end of each trial type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:15:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503788"], "description"=>"<p>Pz ERPs for all conditions for the participants considered in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258#pone-0054258-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a> (1, 2 and 8). Positive is plotted down. Vertical dashed lines mark the P3b bounding window.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pz"], "article_id"=>174310, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selection_of_Pz_ERPs_/174310", "title"=>"Selection of Pz ERPs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:11:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503074"], "description"=>"<p>Illustrative P3b randomised null hypothesis distributions for three participants (1, 2 and 8, whose ERPs are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258#pone-0054258-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 10</a>). The true observed value is marked by a vertical line, with area above that line, which gives p-value, marked. Data from Participant 1, whose P3b effect is weakest (as seen in their ERP) produces a large p-value. On the other hand, the true observed value for Subject 8, the participant whose effect is strongest, falls far outside of the randomised null hypothesis distribution, resulting in a p-value<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["p3b-pz", "null"], "article_id"=>173588, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selection_of_P3b_Pz_null_hypothesis_distributions_/173588", "title"=>"Selection of P3b-Pz null hypothesis distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:59:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504123"], "description"=>"<p>Shown above are p-values obtained from the single dimension randomisations and combined three-dimensional Fisher procedure, for all participants and all conditions. Fisher scores (on which the decision of deception is based) are <0.05 for all participants, resulting in an overall 100% hit rate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["randomisations", "fisher", "probability"], "article_id"=>174641, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Single_dimension_randomisations_results_and_Fisher_combined_probability_scores_/174641", "title"=>"Single dimension randomisations results and Fisher combined probability scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:17:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502874"], "description"=>"<p>Grand average at Pz, for all conditions. Positive is plotted down; y-axis is microvolts; x-axis is milliseconds. Vertical dashed lines mark the P3b bounding window. The amplitude of Probe and Fake is clearly larger than the amplitude of the two Irrelevant conditions. Moreover, the peak of Probe is earlier than the peak of Fake.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "physiology", "neuroscience", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>173391, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pz_grand_average_/173391", "title"=>"Pz grand average.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:56:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502934"], "description"=>"<p>P3a grand averages at Fz and Cz, positive down, vertical dashed lines mark the region in which we search for the P3a (i.e. the bounding window). There is evidence of a large P3a for the Probe condition. Probe is also earlier than Fake.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cz"], "article_id"=>173454, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fz_and_Cz_grand_averages_/173454", "title"=>"Fz and Cz grand averages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:57:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503171"], "description"=>"<p>Grand average ERPs for Early vs. Late. The ‘Early’ trace is the grand average for the first half (in chronological order) of Irrelevant2 trials that each participant was presented, while the ‘Late’ trace is the grand average for the second half of Irrelevant2 trials. There is no clear indication of a difference between the two conditions (especially, the amplitudes of the ‘Late’ traces are not greater than ‘Early’ ones). Vertical dashed lines demarcate the relevant P3 bounding window.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["averages"], "article_id"=>173689, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Early_vs_Late_grand_averages_for_all_channels_/173689", "title"=>"Early vs. Late grand averages for all channels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:01:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503474"], "description"=>"<p>Fz ERPs for all participants; positive down. Dashed vertical lines represent the P3a bounding window. The bold line is the ERP for the Probe condition, while the thinner line is the ERP for the Irrelevant1 condition. The number on the top left of each plot indicates the participant. The P3a effect (Probe more positive early and/or more negative late than Irrelevant1) is identifiable for each participant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["erps"], "article_id"=>173994, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fz_ERPs_for_all_participants_/173994", "title"=>"Fz ERPs for all participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/504163"], "description"=>"<p><i>FP</i> Rates indicate the frequency with which a p-value <0.05 was obtained during a run (out of 1,000 runs, for each participant). As expected, <i>FP</i> Rates are close to a value of 0.05.</p><p>The average p-values obtained across the 1,000 runs are around 0.5, which is as expected (last row). This table was generated using the method described in section 2.10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intrinsic"], "article_id"=>174679, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_obtained_from_the_intrinsic_false_alarm_testing_procedure_/174679", "title"=>"Results obtained from the intrinsic false alarm testing procedure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:17:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503016"], "description"=>"<p>List of example names, formatted as stimuli. Note that name 3 would not be shown immediately after name 4 as they have 2 letters (‘A’ and ‘L’) in the same position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "physiology", "neuroscience", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>173528, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_stimuli_/173528", "title"=>"Example stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:58:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503387"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of p-values combined under Fisher's method obtained from the intrinsic validity false alarm testing procedure. The 15 different bars in each bin represent the data obtained from the 15 participants. As expected, the distribution of p-values is uniform.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["p-values", "intrinsic"], "article_id"=>173910, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>50, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_p_values_obtained_from_the_intrinsic_validity_test_/173910", "title"=>"Distribution of p-values obtained from the intrinsic validity test.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:05:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503258"], "description"=>"<p>Randomisation inferred null hypothesis distributions aggregated across all participants for latency differences between Fake and Probe. Black vertical lines mark true observed value and p-value region. P3a calculated on Fz electrode and P3b at Pz. These show that the difference in latency between Fake and Probe is significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["null"], "article_id"=>173779, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Latency_difference_null_hypothesis_distributions_/173779", "title"=>"Latency difference null hypothesis distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:02:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503662"], "description"=>"<p>Fz and Cz P3a (peak-to-peak) null hypothesis distributions for three representative participants (participants 3, 11 and 14). True observed value and Type I error region are marked in black.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["p3a-fz", "p3a-cz", "null"], "article_id"=>174175, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Brad Wyble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054258.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selection_of_P3a_Fz_and_P3a_Cz_null_hypothesis_distributions_/174175", "title"=>"Selection of P3a-Fz and P3a-Cz null hypothesis distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:09:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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