The First Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic of Spain, with Implications for Evolution of the Subclade Rhacheosaurini
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{"title"=>"The First Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic of Spain, with Implications for Evolution of the Subclade Rhacheosaurini", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jara", "last_name"=>"Parrilla-Bel", "scopus_author_id"=>"55567713100"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark T.", "last_name"=>"Young", "scopus_author_id"=>"35281345900"}, {"first_name"=>"Miguel", "last_name"=>"Moreno-Azanza", "scopus_author_id"=>"36615766900"}, {"first_name"=>"José Ignacio", "last_name"=>"Canudo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603059434"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872765627", "sgr"=>"84872765627", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23372699", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0054275", "pui"=>"368176395"}, "id"=>"67029f58-7e10-3fb1-badd-6329d7b0f37d", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Marine deposits from the Callovian of Europe have yielded numerous species of metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. While common in English and French Formations, metriorhynchids are poorly known from the Iberian Peninsula. Twenty years ago an incomplete, but beautifully preserved, skull was discovered from the Middle Callovian of Spain. It is currently the oldest and best preserved metriorhynchid specimen from the Iberian Peninsula. Until now it has never been properly described and its taxonomic affinities remained obscure.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a comprehensive description for this specimen and in doing so we refer it to a new genus and species: Maledictosuchus riclaensis. This species is diagnosed by numerous autapomorphies, including: heterodont dentition; tightly interlocking occlusion; lachrymal anterior process excludes the jugal from the preorbital fenestra; orbits longer than supratemporal fenestrae; palatine has two non-midline and one midline anterior processes. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Maledictosuchus riclaensis to be the basal-most known member of Rhacheosaurini (the subclade of increasingly mesopelagic piscivores that includes Cricosaurus and Rhacheosaurus).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our description of Maledictosuchus riclaensis shows that the craniodental morphologies that underpinned the success of Rhacheosaurini in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, as a result of increasing marine specialization to adaptations for feeding on fast small-bodied prey (i.e. divided and retracted external nares; reorientation of the lateral processes of the frontal; elongate, tubular rostrum; procumbent and non-carinated dentition; high overall tooth count; and dorsolaterally inclined paroccipital processes), first appeared during the Middle Jurassic. Rhacheosaurins were curiously rare in the Middle Jurassic, as only one specimen of Maledictosuchus riclaensis is known (with no representatives discovered from the well-sampled Oxford Clay Formation of England). As such, the feeding/marine adaptations of Rhacheosaurini did not confer an immediate selective advantage upon the group, and it took until the Late Jurassic for this subclade to dominate in Western Europe.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/first-metriorhynchid-crocodylomorph-middle-jurassic-spain-implications-evolution-subclade-rhacheosau", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503577"], "description"=>"<p>Ensemble consistency index, CI = 0.473; ensemble retention index, RI = 0.860; rescaled consistency index, RC = 0.407. Numbers over lines represent Bremer support values. Numbers under lines represent bootstrap values (only values over 50% represented). Ordering forty multistate characters (see methods) resulted in a loss of resolution among non-metriorhynchids, but significantly improved the resolution within Rhacheosaurini. <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. is recovered as the basal-most member of this tribe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["194", "parsimonious", "cladograms", "679", "phylogenetic", "relationships", "et", "metriorhynchidae", "ordered", "characters", "methods"], "article_id"=>174080, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strict_consensus_of_194_most_parsimonious_cladograms_of_679_steps_showing_the_phylogenetic_relationships_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_within_Metriorhynchidae_with_forty_ordered_characters_see_methods_section_for_complete_list_of_ordered_ch/174080", "title"=>"Strict consensus of 194 most parsimonious cladograms of 679 steps, showing the phylogenetic relationships of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. within Metriorhynchidae with forty ordered characters (see methods section for complete list of ordered characters).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:08:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502481"], "description"=>"<p>Photographs and interpretative drawings. A, premaxillary teeth; B, morphology of M1 to M4; C, morphology of M5 to M11; D, morphology of M15 to M26, and detailed photograph and drawing of M23 to M25; E, morphology of M26 to M31. Stripped pattern represents rebuilt mastic surfaces and teeth; grey colored circles represent empty alveoli (teeth are not preserved); circles with broken line represent reception pits. Scale bar = 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pits", "et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>172992, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Teeth_variation_heterodonty_and_reception_pits_in_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/172992", "title"=>"Teeth variation (heterodonty) and reception pits in <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:49:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/477645"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Marine deposits from the Callovian of Europe have yielded numerous species of metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. While common in English and French Formations, metriorhynchids are poorly known from the Iberian Peninsula. Twenty years ago an incomplete, but beautifully preserved, skull was discovered from the Middle Callovian of Spain. It is currently the oldest and best preserved metriorhynchid specimen from the Iberian Peninsula. Until now it has never been properly described and its taxonomic affinities remained obscure.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Here we present a comprehensive description for this specimen and in doing so we refer it to a new genus and species: <em>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</em>. This species is diagnosed by numerous autapomorphies, including: heterodont dentition; tightly interlocking occlusion; lachrymal anterior process excludes the jugal from the preorbital fenestra; orbits longer than supratemporal fenestrae; palatine has two non-midline and one midline anterior processes. Our phylogenetic analysis finds <em>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</em> to be the basal-most known member of Rhacheosaurini (the subclade of increasingly mesopelagic piscivores that includes <em>Cricosaurus</em> and <em>Rhacheosaurus</em>).</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our description of <em>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</em> shows that the craniodental morphologies that underpinned the success of Rhacheosaurini in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, as a result of increasing marine specialization to adaptations for feeding on fast small-bodied prey (i.e. divided and retracted external nares; reorientation of the lateral processes of the frontal; elongate, tubular rostrum; procumbent and non-carinated dentition; high overall tooth count; and dorsolaterally inclined paroccipital processes), first appeared during the Middle Jurassic. Rhacheosaurins were curiously rare in the Middle Jurassic, as only one specimen of <em>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</em> is known (with no representatives discovered from the well-sampled Oxford Clay Formation of England). As such, the feeding/marine adaptations of Rhacheosaurini did not confer an immediate selective advantage upon the group, and it took until the Late Jurassic for this subclade to dominate in Western Europe.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["metriorhynchid", "crocodylomorph", "Jurassic", "implications", "subclade", "rhacheosaurini"], "article_id"=>154078, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>43, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_First_Metriorhynchid_Crocodylomorph_from_the_Middle_Jurassic_of_Spain_with_Implications_for_Evolution_of_the_Subclade_Rhacheosaurini__/154078", "title"=>"The First Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic of Spain, with Implications for Evolution of the Subclade Rhacheosaurini", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:07:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502618"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bar = 2 cm. Anatomical abbreviations: j, jugal; la, lachrymal; ma, maxilla; na, nasal; orb, orbit; pfe, preorbital fenestra; pfo, preorbital fossa; prf, prefrontal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preorbital", "et", "holotype", "mpz", "lateral"], "article_id"=>173132, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_preorbital_region_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_in_lateral_view_/173132", "title"=>"Left preorbital region of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a in lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:52:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502369"], "description"=>"<p>A, right lateral view; B, dorsal view. Scale bar = 2 cm. Stripped pattern represents reconstructed surfaces. Anatomical Abbreviations: en, external nares; ma, maxilla; pre, premaxilla; sep, premaxillary septum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretative", "drawings", "premaxilla", "et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>172890, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photographs_and_interpretative_drawings_of_the_premaxilla_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/172890", "title"=>"Photographs and interpretative drawings of the premaxilla of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:48:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503249"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bar = 5 cm. A–B, dorsal view photograph and interpretative drawing; C, lateral view. Stripped pattern represents rebuilt mastic surfaces and teeth; grey colored circles represent empty alveoli (teeth are not preserved); circles with broken line represent reception pits. Anatomical abbreviations: al, alveolus; den, dentary; rp, reception pits; sp, splenial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>173767, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dentary_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/173767", "title"=>"Dentary of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:02:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502899"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bar = 5 cm. Anatomical abbreviations: fr, frontal; j, jugal; na, nasal; orb, orbit; pa, parietal; po, postorbital; prf, prefrontal; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra; 1, angle between medial and lateral frontal processes; 2, frontal minimum width between orbits.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["et", "holotype", "mpz", "dorsal"], "article_id"=>173416, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posterior_region_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_in_dorsal_view_/173416", "title"=>"Posterior region of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a in dorsal view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:56:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503072"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bar = 5 cm. Anatomical abbreviations: fr, frontal; itf, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; la, lachrymal; oca, otic canal; orb, orbit; pa, parietal; po, postorbital; prf, prefrontal; qu, quadrate; sof, suborbital fenestra; sq, squamosal; sqs, squamosal flat surface; stf, supratemporal fenestra.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["et", "holotype", "mpz", "lateral"], "article_id"=>173589, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posterior_region_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_in_lateral_view_/173589", "title"=>"Posterior region of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a in lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:59:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502200"], "description"=>"<p>A, dorsal view; B, left lateral view; C ventral view; D, posterior view. Scale bar = 5 cm. Stripped pattern represents rebuilt mastic surfaces. Dotted pattern represents matrix. Anatomical abbreviations: bo, basioccipital; bsf, basisphenoid; bt, basioccipital basal tubera; cq, cranioquadrate canal; den, dentary; ef, Eustachian foramen; en, external nares; eo, exoccipital; ept, ectopterygoids; fm, foramen magnum; fr, frontal; ic, foramen for the internal carotid artery; in, internal nares; itf, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; la, lachrymal; ma, maxilla; na, nasal; oc, occipital condyle; oca, otic canal; orb, orbit; pa, parietal; pal, palatine; pfo, preorbital fossa; po, postorbital; pop, paroccipital process; pre, premaxilla; prf, prefrontal; pt, pterygoids; qu, quadrate; so, supraoccipital; sof, suborbital fenestra; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["et", "holotype", "mpz", "photographs", "interpretative"], "article_id"=>172718, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_photographs_and_interpretative_drawings_/172718", "title"=>"Skull of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a, photographs and interpretative drawings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:45:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503442"], "description"=>"<p>Ensemble consistency index, CI = 0.497; ensemble retention index, RI = 0.857; rescaled consistency index, RC = 0.426. Numbers over lines represent Bremer support values. Numbers under lines represent bootstrap values (only values over 50% represented). The topology is identical to that of Young <i>et al. </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275#pone.0054275-Young6\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>. <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. is recovered in a large politomy at the base of the tribe Rhacheosaurini.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parsimonious", "cladograms", "638", "phylogenetic", "relationships", "et", "metriorhynchidae", "characters"], "article_id"=>173950, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strict_consensus_of_8_most_parsimonious_cladograms_of_638_steps_showing_the_phylogenetic_relationships_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_within_Metriorhynchidae_when_all_characters_are_unordered_/173950", "title"=>"Strict consensus of 8 most parsimonious cladograms of 638 steps, showing the phylogenetic relationships of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. within Metriorhynchidae when all characters are unordered.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:05:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502787"], "description"=>"<p>A, interpretative drawing of the occlusion mechanism. The interpretation has been created from morphology, size and position of teeth/alveoli and reception pits. The divisions 1 to 6 correspond to: (1) premaxilla, and (2–6) subdivisions of the maxilla. B, Right anteroventral view of zones 5–6. C Right anteroventral view of zones 3–4. D, Right anteroventral view of zones 1–2. E Right anterodorsal view of dentary. Abbreviations: D, dentary tooth; M, maxillary tooth; PM, premaxillary tooth; rpD, reception pit produced by dentary tooth; rpM, reception pit produced by maxillary tooth. Green colour: teeth/alveoli of maxilla and their reception pits on the dentary; Yellow: dentary teeth/alveoli and their reception pits in maxilla.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["occlusion", "et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>173304, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reconstruction_of_the_occlusion_mechanism_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/173304", "title"=>"Reconstruction of the occlusion mechanism of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:55:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502299"], "description"=>"<p>Notice the ornamentation on the external surfaces of the frontal and the prefrontals. Scale bar = 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frontal", "et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>172814, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_view_of_the_frontal_region_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/172814", "title"=>"Dorsal view of the frontal region of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503160"], "description"=>"<p>Scale bar = 1 cm. Anatomical abbreviations: bsf, basisphenoids; ef, Eustachian foramen; ept, ectopterygoids; in, internal nares; itf, infratemporal fenestra; oc, occipital condyle; pal, palatine; psf, parasphenoids; pt, pterygoids; qu, quadrate; sof, suborbital fenestra.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["palate", "et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>173675, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posterior_region_of_the_palate_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/173675", "title"=>"Posterior region of the palate of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:01:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503337"], "description"=>"<p>A, dentary in right lateral view; B–C close-up on a replacement tooth (D8), with well preserved enamel and conspicuous ornamentation. Scale bar A = 1 cm; B–C = 2 mm. Anatomical Abbreviations: al, alveolus; de, dentine; den, dentary; en, enamel; rp, reception pits; rt, replacement tooth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>173852, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Close_up_on_a_tooth_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/173852", "title"=>"Close-up on a tooth of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:04:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501915"], "description"=>"<p>A, <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i>, holotype MPZ 2001/130a (MPZ, Museo Paleontológico de la Universidad de Zaragoza); B, <i>Rhacheosaurus gracilis</i>, referred specimen NHMUK PV R3948 (NHMUK, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom); C, <i>Cricosaurus araucanensis</i>, holotype MLP 72-IV-7-1; D, <i>Cricosaurus suevicus</i>, lectotype SMNS 9808 (SMNS, Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart, Germany). Scale bar = 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhacheosaurini", "cranial"], "article_id"=>172430, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_plate_of_Rhacheosaurini_cranial_morphology_/172430", "title"=>"Comparative plate of Rhacheosaurini cranial morphology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:40:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502978"], "description"=>"<p>A, detailed photograph of the posterolateral region; B, interpretative drawing of the posterolateral region. Scale bar = 3 cm. Dotted pattern represents broken regions. Anatomical abbreviations: bt, basioccipital basal tubera; cq, cranioquadrate canal; ef, Eustachian foramen; eo, exoccipital; fm, foramen magnum; ic, foramen for the internal carotid artery; oc, occipital condyle; oca, otic canal; pa, parietal; pop, paroccipital process; qu, quadrate; so, supraoccipital; sqs, squamosal flat surface; stf, supratemporal fenestra.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["posterolateral", "et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>173496, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_posterolateral_region_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/173496", "title"=>"Left posterolateral region of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:58:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502704"], "description"=>"<p>A, general view of the posterior region, with the suture drawn in white; B, detail of the maxilla-palatine suture. Scale bar = 1 cm. Anatomical Abbreviations: gr, palatal-maxillary groove; ma, maxilla; pal, palatine.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>173224, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Palate_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130a_/173224", "title"=>"Palate of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:53:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/502049"], "description"=>"<p>Location and geological map of Ricla locality, modified from Lendínez et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275#pone.0054275-Lendnez1\" target=\"_blank\">[59]</a>. Abbreviations: Fm., Formation; Fms., Formations; Mb., Member.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geological", "et", "holotype", "mpz"], "article_id"=>172566, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographical_and_geological_location_of_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_gen_et_sp_nov_holotype_MPZ_2001_130_/172566", "title"=>"Geographical and geological location of <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i> gen. et sp. nov. holotype MPZ 2001/130.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 00:42:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/503687"], "description"=>"<p>Data from the Leeds Collections of NHMUK (NHMUK, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom) and GLAHM (Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, United Kingdom). Note, we do not currently consider NHMUK PV R1994 and NHMUK PV R2039 to belong to “<i>Metriorhynchus</i>” <i>brachyrhynchus</i>. These specimens and the synonymy between “<i>M.</i>” <i>brachyrhynchus</i> and <i>Suchodus durobrivensis</i> is currently under review by one of us (MTY).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characters", "differentiate", "callovian", "metriorhynchid", "et"], "article_id"=>174197, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jara Parrilla-Bel", "Mark T. Young", "Miguel Moreno-Azanza", "José Ignacio Canudo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054275.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_characters_to_differentiate_between_the_various_Callovian_metriorhynchid_species_expanded_from_Young_et_al_18_to_include_Maledictosuchus_riclaensis_/174197", "title"=>"List of characters to differentiate between the various Callovian metriorhynchid species (expanded from Young et al., [18] to include <i>Maledictosuchus riclaensis</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-23 01:09:57"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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