Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa
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{"title"=>"Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julien", "last_name"=>"Benoit", "scopus_author_id"=>"49560912500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvain", "last_name"=>"Adnet", "scopus_author_id"=>"16027720400"}, {"first_name"=>"Essid", "last_name"=>"El Mabrouk", "scopus_author_id"=>"55559474400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hayet", "last_name"=>"Khayati", "scopus_author_id"=>"55559886700"}, {"first_name"=>"Mustapha", "last_name"=>"Ben Haj Ali", "scopus_author_id"=>"55361765400"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurent", "last_name"=>"Marivaux", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603065491"}, {"first_name"=>"Gilles", "last_name"=>"Merzeraud", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507118969"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel", "last_name"=>"Merigeaud", "scopus_author_id"=>"24776858200"}, {"first_name"=>"Monique", "last_name"=>"Vianey-Liaud", "scopus_author_id"=>"55909730200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rodolphe", "last_name"=>"Tabuce", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602650395"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368133795", "pmid"=>"23342128", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0054307", "sgr"=>"84872440630", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872440630"}, "id"=>"56426978-5068-3aae-8350-e37e94a7ab02", "abstract"=>"Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea--the putative sister-groups to Sirenia--are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids' one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cranial-remain-tunisia-provides-new-clues-origin-evolution-sirenia-mammalia-afrotheria-africa", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/276509", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/276630", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/276728", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/276794"], "description"=>"<div><p>Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (<em>Prorastomus</em> and <em>Pezosiren</em>). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea - the putative sister-groups to Sirenia - are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids’ one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cranial", "tunisia", "provides", "clues", "sirenia", "africa"], "article_id"=>114496, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cranial_Remain_from_Tunisia_Provides_New_Clues_for_the_Origin_and_Evolution_of_Sirenia_Mammalia_Afrotheria_in_Africa__/114496", "title"=>"Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506843"], "description"=>"<p>A, ventral view (apical view of the cochlear canal); B, posterolateral view (profile view of the cochlear canal); C, lateral view; D, anterior view; E, dorsal view; F, posterior view. Scale bar = 1mm. Legend: Acq.vest.: bony channel of the <i>acqueductus vestibuli</i>; Break: broken area of the bony labyrinth; Can.coc.: bony channel of the <i>canaliculus cochleae</i>; Com.crus: common crus; F.vest.: bony channel of the <i>fenestra vestibuli</i>; F.coc.: bony channel of the <i>fenestra cochleae</i>; S.c.ant.: anterior semicircular canal; S.c.lat.: lateral semicircular canal; S.c.post.: posterior semicircular canal; Sec.com.crus: secondary common crus; Sing.f.: bony channel of the singular foramen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "bony", "labyrinth", "sirenian"], "article_id"=>177348, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CT_reconstruction_of_the_bony_labyrinth_of_the_sirenian_from_Chambi_/177348", "title"=>"CT reconstruction of the bony labyrinth of the sirenian from Chambi.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 02:02:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506595"], "description"=>"<p>ABC: CBI-1-542. DEF: <i>Prorastomus</i> (BMNH 44897). AD: ventral view, BC: ventrolateral view, CF: dorsal view. Scale bar = 5mm. Broken areas are in grey on drawings. <i>Prorastomus</i> was mirrored for the purpose of comparison. Ac.ant.: <i>foramen acusticum anterius</i>; A.crib.med.: <i>area cribrosa media</i>; Ac.post.: <i>foramen acusticum posterius</i>; Acq.vest.: <i>acqueductus vestibuli</i>; Alisph.art.: alisphenoid articulation facet; Ant.crus: attachment area for the anterior crus of the tympanic; Can.coc.: <i>canaliculus cochleae</i>; Com.sup.fac.: <i>commissura suprafacialis;</i> Fac.f.: facial foramen; Fac.s.: facial sulcus; Fal.notch: fallopian notch; F.coc.: <i>fenestra cochleae</i>; Fos.ten.tymp.: <i>fossa tensor tympani</i>; F.vest.: <i>fenestra vestibuli</i>; Hiat.fal.: <i>hiatus fallopi</i>; Pars.coc.: <i>pars cochlearis</i>; Pars.mast.: <i>pars mastoidea</i>; Post.crus: attachment area for the posterior crus of the tympanic; Psdtymp.f.: pseudotympanic foramen; Rec.ept.: <i>recessus epitympanicus</i>; Sept.meta.: <i>Septum metacochleae</i>; S.fac.f.: secondary facial foramen; Sing.f.: singular foramen; Sin.pet.inf.: <i>sinus petrosus inferius</i>; Sin.pet.sup.: <i>sinus petrosus superius</i>; Stap.mu.fos.: stapedial muscle fossa; Teg.tymp.: <i>tegmen tympani</i>; Teg.proc. : tegmen process; Tract.spir.f.: <i>tractus spiralis foraminosus</i>; Tymp.hyal.pr.: tympanohyal process; Utr.f.: utricular foramen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "petrosals", "sirenian", "chambi"], "article_id"=>177098, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>55, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CT_reconstruction_of_the_petrosals_of_the_sirenian_from_Chambi_and_Prorastomus_/177098", "title"=>"CT reconstruction of the petrosals of the sirenian from Chambi and <i>Prorastomus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 01:58:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507151"], "description"=>"<p>Strict consensus of 2975 trees. Tree length: 57; Consistency index (CI): 0.60; Retention index (RI):0.81; Homoplasy index (HI): 0.50; Rescaled consistency index (RC): 0.48. Bold lines represent fossil record. Geographic ranges of the sirenian from Chambi, prorastomids and other sirenians after refs. 3, 5, 12. Shared derived traits at nodes: Node 1: pachyosteosclerotic promontorium and <i>tegmen tympani</i> (3(1)); reniform <i>tegmen tympani</i> (11(1)); cochlear canal more voluminous than the vestibule (23(1), homoplasic, CI = 0.5); semicircular canals of approximately the same radius (25(1)); lateral canal larger than other canals (26(1)). Node 2: reduced stapedial ratio (round <i>fenestra vestibuli</i>) (5(1), homoplasic CI = 0.33); <i>Hiatus fallopi</i> absent (7(0), Homoplasic, CI = 0.33); Pseudotympanic facial foramen present (15(1)); inflated, squared (17(2)) and dense (19(1)) mastoid apophysis. Node 3: merged <i>canaliculus cochleae</i> and <i>fenestra cochleae</i> (4(1), homoplasic, CI = 0.33); weakly defined stapedial muscle fossa (10(1)); large and deep epitympanic recess (13(1)); developed epitympanic wing (16(1), homoplasic, CI = 0.2); Thick <i>crista falciformis</i> widely separating the acoustic foramina (20(1), homoplasic, CI = 0.50). Node 4: tegmen process present (12(1), homoplasic, CI = 0.5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cladistic", "sirenian", "petrosal", "bony", "labyrinth", "characters"], "article_id"=>177652, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simplified_result_of_the_cladistic_analysis_on_sirenian_petrosal_and_bony_labyrinth_characters_see_also_S1_/177652", "title"=>"Simplified result of the cladistic analysis on sirenian petrosal and bony labyrinth characters (see also S1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 02:07:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507020"], "description"=>"<p>A, ventral view (apical view of the cochlear canal); B, posterolateral view (profile view of the cochlear canal); C, lateral view; D, anterior view; E, dorsal view; F, posterior view. Scale bar = 1mm. Legend: Acq.vest.: bony channel of the <i>acqueductus vestibuli</i>; Break: broken area of the bony labyrinth; Can.coc.: bony channel of the <i>canaliculus cochleae</i>; Com.crus: common crus; F.coc.: bony channel of the <i>fenestra cochleae</i>; F.vest.: bony channel of the <i>fenestra vestibuli</i>; S.c.ant.: anterior semicircular canal; S.c.lat.: lateral semicircular canal; S.c.post.: posterior semicircular canal; Sec.com.crus: secondary common crus; Sing.f.: bony channel of the singular foramen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "bony", "labyrinth"], "article_id"=>177530, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CT_reconstruction_of_the_bony_labyrinth_of_Prorastomus_mirrored_/177530", "title"=>"CT reconstruction of the bony labyrinth of <i>Prorastomus</i> (mirrored).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 02:05:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507324"], "description"=>"<p>The arrow indicates the transition from freshwater (white line) to sea-water sea-cows (black line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dispersal", "routes", "sirenians", "archeocetes"], "article_id"=>177802, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothetical_dispersal_routes_of_stem_sirenians_solid_line_and_archeocetes_dotted_line_during_the_Early_and_early_Middle_Eocene_after_46_/177802", "title"=>"Hypothetical dispersal routes of stem sirenians (solid line) and archeocetes (dotted line) during the Early and early Middle Eocene, after 46.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 02:10:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/507403"], "description"=>"<p>Measurements of the petrosals and bony labyrinth of various Paenungulata. Measurements of <i>Trichechus</i> after 21. Linear measurements are in millimeters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["petrosals", "bony", "labyrinth", "linear"], "article_id"=>177886, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_petrosals_and_bony_labyrinth_of_various_Paenungulata_Measurements_of_Trichechus_after_21_Linear_measurements_are_in_millimeters_/177886", "title"=>"Measurements of the petrosals and bony labyrinth of various Paenungulata. Measurements of <i>Trichechus</i> after 21. Linear measurements are in millimeters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 02:11:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506765"], "description"=>"<p>A: slide at the level of the <i>pars mastoidea</i> showing cancellous cells in the mastoid apophysis; B: slide at the level of the <i>hiatus fallopi</i> showing the communication between the <i>hiatus fallopi</i> and the <i>canalis fallopi</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>177279, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julien Benoit", "Sylvain Adnet", "Essid El Mabrouk", "Hayet Khayati", "Mustapha Ben Haj Ali", "Laurent Marivaux", "Gilles Merzeraud", "Samuel Merigeaud", "Monique Vianey-Liaud", "Rodolphe Tabuce"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054307.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CT_radiography_of_CBI_1_542_/177279", "title"=>"CT-radiography of CBI-1-542.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-16 02:01:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
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Relative Metric

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