Conserving the Birds of Uganda’s Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared
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{"title"=>"Conserving the Birds of Uganda's Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mark F.", "last_name"=>"Hulme", "scopus_author_id"=>"54779813200"}, {"first_name"=>"Juliet A.", "last_name"=>"Vickery", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006966135"}, {"first_name"=>"Rhys E.", "last_name"=>"Green", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403916297"}, {"first_name"=>"Ben", "last_name"=>"Phalan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506506708"}, {"first_name"=>"Dan E.", "last_name"=>"Chamberlain", "scopus_author_id"=>"35547683300"}, {"first_name"=>"Derek E.", "last_name"=>"Pomeroy", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701342577"}, {"first_name"=>"Dianah", "last_name"=>"Nalwanga", "scopus_author_id"=>"16638663600"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Mushabe", "scopus_author_id"=>"16043073800"}, {"first_name"=>"Raymond", "last_name"=>"Katebaka", "scopus_author_id"=>"55572260500"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Bolwig", "scopus_author_id"=>"21734537700"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip W.", "last_name"=>"Atkinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201906436"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84873502832", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0054597", "pui"=>"368294397", "pmid"=>"23390501", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873502832", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"064194c3-6b6f-3bad-ae5c-37816cca1270", "abstract"=>"Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as \"winners\" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or \"losers\" (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. 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Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/conserving-birds-ugandas-bananacoffee-arc-land-sparing-land-sharing-compared", "reader_count"=>185, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>46, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>42, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>46, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482217", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482219", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482229", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482232"], "description"=>"<div><p>Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as “winners” (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or “losers” (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "conserving", "birds", "banana-coffee", "sparing", "sharing", "compared"], "article_id"=>155739, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>48, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Conserving_the_Birds_of_Uganda_s_Banana_Coffee_Arc_Land_Sparing_and_Land_Sharing_Compared__/155739", "title"=>"Conserving the Birds of Uganda’s Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:35:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495966"], "description"=>"<p>Number of species which have larger total populations with than without agriculture (winners: light colours) and those with smaller total populations (losers: dark colours) in relation to the production target for food energy. Species which have their largest total populations with the highest energy yield and land sparing (red/pink) those with largest populations with lowest permissible energy yield (land sharing: dark/light blue) and those benefitting most from intermediate yield (dark/light purple) are shown separately. Conventions are as for <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597#pone-0054597-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>. A is for species with a large global range, B is for species with a small global range.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "losers", "targets"], "article_id"=>166452, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Winners_and_losers_with_food_energy_production_targets_by_range_size_/166452", "title"=>"Winners and losers with food energy production targets by range size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:47:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496058"], "description"=>"<p>Number of species which have larger total populations with than without agriculture (winners: light colours) and those with smaller total populations (losers: dark colours) in relation to the production target for income. Species which have their largest total populations with the highest income and land sparing (red/pink) those with largest populations with lowest permissible income (land sharing: dark/light blue) and those benefitting most from intermediate yield (dark/light purple) are shown separately. Maximum permissible income was 835 US$ ha<sup>−1</sup> year<sup>−1</sup>, 1.25 times the maximum observed yield. A is for all species, B is for species with a sample size of 30 individuals or greater.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "losers", "targets"], "article_id"=>166543, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Winners_and_losers_with_gross_income_production_targets_by_sample_size_/166543", "title"=>"Winners and losers with gross income production targets by sample size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:49:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496244"], "description"=>"<p>Sites surveyed, area of forest sites, effort (number of point counts conducted) and annual yield per hectare (GJ ha<sup>−1</sup> year<sup>−1</sup> and US$ ha<sup>−1</sup> half year<sup>−1</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "counts", "hectare"], "article_id"=>166736, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sites_surveyed_area_of_forest_sites_effort_number_of_point_counts_conducted_and_annual_yield_per_hectare_GJ_ha_8722_1_year_8722_1_and_US_ha_8722_1_half_year_8722_1_/166736", "title"=>"Sites surveyed, area of forest sites, effort (number of point counts conducted) and annual yield per hectare (GJ ha<sup>−1</sup> year<sup>−1</sup> and US$ ha<sup>−1</sup> half year<sup>−1</sup>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:52:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495677"], "description"=>"<p>(A, F) Cattle Egret <i>Bubulcus ibis</i>, which at all production targets is a winner for which land sparing is the best strategy. (B, G) Common Bulbul <i>Pycnonotus barbatus</i>, a winner for which land sharing is always the best strategy. (C, H) Black-necked Weaver <i>Ploceus nigricollis</i>, a loser for which land sparing is always the best strategy. (D, I) Splendid-glossy Starling <i>Lamprotornis splendidus</i>, a loser for which the best strategy depends on the production target. (E, J) Black-headed Weaver <i>Ploceus melanocephalus</i>, a winner for which the best strategy depends on the production target.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "types", "fitted", "density-yield"], "article_id"=>166173, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_species_with_different_types_of_fitted_density_yield_functions_/166173", "title"=>"Examples of species with different types of fitted density-yield functions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:42:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495507"], "description"=>"<p>Forest sites are denoted with blue circles, farmland sites with red circles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "sites"], "article_id"=>165995, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_study_sites_in_Uganda_/165995", "title"=>"Location of study sites in Uganda.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:39:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495851"], "description"=>"<p>Number of species which have larger total populations with than without agriculture (winners: light colours) and those with smaller total populations (losers: dark colours) in relation to the production target for food energy. Species which have their largest total populations with the highest energy yield and land sparing (red/pink) those with largest populations with lowest permissible energy yield (land sharing: dark/light blue) and those benefitting most from intermediate yield (dark/light purple) are shown separately Maximum permissible yield was 30 GJ ha<sup>−1</sup> year<sup>−1</sup>, 1.25 times the maximum observed yield. A is for all species, B is for species with a sample size of 30 individuals or greater.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "losers", "targets"], "article_id"=>166341, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Winners_and_losers_with_food_energy_production_targets_by_sample_size_/166341", "title"=>"Winners and losers with food energy production targets by sample size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:45:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496316"], "description"=>"<p>Energy of edible mass and % inedible refuse (skins, husks, stalks <i>etc</i>.) for crops for which yield and area data were available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "edible", "inedible", "stalks", "crops"], "article_id"=>166803, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Energy_of_edible_mass_and_inedible_refuse_skins_husks_stalks_etc_for_crops_for_which_yield_and_area_data_were_available_/166803", "title"=>"Energy of edible mass and % inedible refuse (skins, husks, stalks <i>etc</i>.) for crops for which yield and area data were available.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:53:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496157"], "description"=>"<p>Number of species which have larger total populations with than without agriculture (winners: light colours) and those with smaller total populations (losers: dark colours) in relation to the production target for income. Species which have their largest total populations with the highest income yield and land sparing (red/pink) those with largest populations with lowest permissible income yield (land sharing: dark/light blue) and those benefitting most from intermediate yield (dark/light purple) are shown separately. Conventions are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597#pone-0054597-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>. A is for species with a large global range, B is for species with a small global range.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agricultural production", "Environmental impacts", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "ecosystems", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "losers", "targets"], "article_id"=>166642, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mark F. Hulme", "Juliet A. Vickery", "Rhys E. Green", "Ben Phalan", "Dan E. Chamberlain", "Derek E. Pomeroy", "Dianah Nalwanga", "David Mushabe", "Raymond Katebaka", "Simon Bolwig", "Philip W. Atkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054597.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Winners_and_losers_with_gross_income_production_targets_by_range_size_/166642", "title"=>"Winners and losers with gross income production targets by range size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-04 01:50:42"}

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Relative Metric

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