Pattern of Social Interactions after Group Integration: A Possibility to Keep Stallions in Group
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{"title"=>"Pattern of Social Interactions after Group Integration: A Possibility to Keep Stallions in Group", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sabrina", "last_name"=>"Briefer Freymond", "scopus_author_id"=>"55596106900"}, {"first_name"=>"Elodie F.", "last_name"=>"Briefer", "scopus_author_id"=>"23969897100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rudolf", "last_name"=>"von Niederhäusern", "scopus_author_id"=>"55596042800"}, {"first_name"=>"Iris", "last_name"=>"Bachmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603566831"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368227129", "sgr"=>"84873845766", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23382940", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873845766", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0054688", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"09302063-4479-3968-a49e-8f47a741cebf", "abstract"=>"Horses are often kept in individual stables, rather than in outdoor groups, despite such housing system fulfilling many of their welfare needs, such as the access to social partners. Keeping domestic stallions in outdoor groups would mimic bachelor bands that are found in the wild. Unfortunately, the high level of aggression that unfamiliar stallions display when they first encounter each other discourages owners from keeping them in groups. However, this level of aggression is likely to be particularly important only during group integration, when the dominance hierarchy is being established, whereas relatively low aggression rates have been observed among stable feral bachelor bands. We investigated the possibility of housing breeding stallions owned by the Swiss National Stud in groups on a large pasture (5 stallions in 2009 and 8 stallions in 2010). We studied the pattern of agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions after group integration (17-23 days), and the factors influencing these interactions (time after group integration, dominance rank, age or experience of group housing). We found that stallions displayed generally more ritual than agonistic and than affiliative interactions. The frequency of agonistic and ritual interactions decreased quickly within the first three to four days. The frequency of affiliative interactions increased slowly with time before decreasing after 9-14 days. A stable hierarchy could be measured after 2-3 months. The highest-ranking males had less ritual interactions than the lowest-ranking. Males had also less agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions if they had already been housed in a group the previous year. Therefore, we found that breeding stallions could be housed together on a large pasture, because the frequency of agonistic interactions decreased quickly and remained at a minimal level from the fourth day following group integration. This housing system could potentially increase horse welfare and reduce labour associated with horse management.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pattern-social-interactions-after-group-integration-possibility-keep-stallions-group", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498158"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency of interactions per hour (mean±SE per day; agonistic (a), ritual (b) and affiliative (b) interactions) as a function of time (days) in 2009 (black square) and in 2010 (empty squares). The best fit (log or quadratic) is indicated with a solid line for 2009 and dashed line for 2010 data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interactions"], "article_id"=>168672, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sabrina Briefer Freymond", "Elodie F. Briefer", "Rudolf Von Niederhäusern", "Iris Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_with_time_in_the_frequency_of_social_interactions_after_group_integration_/168672", "title"=>"Changes with time in the frequency of social interactions after group integration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:12:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498358"], "description"=>"<p>The hierarchy appeared stable after two (2010) to three months (2009) following group integration. Higher dominance ranks indicate higher-ranking males.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hierarchy", "months"], "article_id"=>168877, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sabrina Briefer Freymond", "Elodie F. Briefer", "Rudolf Von Niederhäusern", "Iris Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dominance_hierarchy_after_one_two_and_three_months_final_rank_following_group_integration_/168877", "title"=>"Dominance hierarchy after one, two and three months (final rank) following group integration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:13:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498242"], "description"=>"<p>The best fit (quadratic) is indicated with a solid line for 2009 and dashed line for 2010 data. Residuals represented stallions that had more interactions than predicted by the time after integration. Higher dominance ranks indicate higher-ranking individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["affiliative", "interactions", "residuals", "controlled", "dominance", "stallions", "2009", "2010"], "article_id"=>168750, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sabrina Briefer Freymond", "Elodie F. Briefer", "Rudolf Von Niederhäusern", "Iris Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_the_frequency_of_ritual_a_and_affiliative_b_interactions_per_hour_model_residuals_controlled_for_the_effect_of_the_time_after_integration_and_the_dominance_rank_of_stallions_in_2009_black_square_and_2010_empty_squares_mean_177_SE_per/168750", "title"=>"Relationship between the frequency of ritual (a) and affiliative (b) interactions per hour (model residuals controlled for the effect of the time after integration) and the dominance rank of stallions in 2009 (black square) and 2010 (empty squares; mean±SE per rank).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:13:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498333"], "description"=>"<p>The categories of interactions that were included in the analyses are shown in bold and the behaviours scored are in italic. A short description of the behaviours is included when needed (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688#pone.0054688-Fureix1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688#pone.0054688-Bourjade2\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688#pone.0054688-McDonnell1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688#pone.0054688-Feist1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688#pone.0054688-McDonnell2\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688#pone.0054688-Jrgensen1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688#pone.0054688-Zharkikh1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interactions", "scored"], "article_id"=>168850, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sabrina Briefer Freymond", "Elodie F. Briefer", "Rudolf Von Niederhäusern", "Iris Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_and_description_of_the_interactions_scored_after_group_integration_/168850", "title"=>"List and description of the interactions scored after group integration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:13:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498386"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> The response variable (category of interaction) and fixed effect(s) included in the models are indicated. The fit of the models is assessed by Akaike’s information criterion corrected for small sample sizes (AIC<sub>C</sub>): the lowest value for a given response variable (i.e. set of models) indicates the best fit (in bold). ΔAIC<sub>C</sub> gives the difference in AIC<sub>C</sub> between each model and the best model. The Akaike’s weights (<i>wi</i>) assess the relative support that a given model has from the data, compared to other candidate models in the set. The evidence ratio (ER) is the ratio between the Akaike’s weight of the best model and that of a competing one. Results of the likelihood-ratio tests (<i>χ<sup>2</sup></i> and <i>p</i>) used to compare the various models (“Model comparison”) and to assess statistical significance of the factors are indicated (significant results are in bold). Fixed effects: “Hours” indicates a linear term, “log(Hours)” a log term and “Hours<sup>2</sup>” a quadratic term (indicating that both linear and quadratic terms were included in the model).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dominance", "interactions"], "article_id"=>168903, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sabrina Briefer Freymond", "Elodie F. Briefer", "Rudolf Von Niederhäusern", "Iris Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054688.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Models_fit_to_investigate_the_effects_of_the_time_after_group_integration_8220_Hours_8221_the_age_8220_Age_8221_and_the_dominance_rank_8220_Rank_8221_of_stallions_and_their_experience_of_group_housing_8220_Experience_8221_on_the_frequency_of_interactions/168903", "title"=>"Models fit to investigate the effects of the time after group integration (“Hours”), the age (“Age”) and the dominance rank (“Rank”) of stallions, and their experience of group housing (“Experience”) on the frequency of interactions (agonistic, ritual or affiliative).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:14:09"}

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Relative Metric

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