Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions
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{"title"=>"Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Leah", "last_name"=>"Wasser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55576105600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rick", "last_name"=>"Day", "scopus_author_id"=>"34973917400"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Chasmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506728257"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405888110"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873185339", "sgr"=>"84873185339", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0054776", "pmid"=>"23382966", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"368246867"}, "id"=>"63ac90aa-1c71-368a-be1e-bbee34ee8502", "abstract"=>"Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/influence-vegetation-structure-lidarderived-canopy-height-fractional-cover-forested-riparian-buffers", "reader_count"=>94, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>43, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>16}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>43}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497012"], "description"=>"<p>Superscripts (A,B,C) identify post-hoc Tukey test results. Means with the same superscripted letter are not statistically different (P = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "meters", "plots", "stratified", "vegetation", "percentile", "chm", "lidar"], "article_id"=>167525, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_differences_in_meters_Lidar_measured_plot_average_height_for_all_plots_and_plots_stratified_by_vegetation_type_using_both_percentile_and_CHM_lidar_height_estimates_/167525", "title"=>"Mean differences in meters (Lidar - measured plot average height) for all plots and plots stratified by vegetation type using both percentile and CHM lidar height estimates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:06:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496781"], "description"=>"<p>Adjusted height values per year in meters for all plots and by plot vegetation leaf structure type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["meters", "plots", "vegetation"], "article_id"=>167303, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adjusted_height_values_per_year_in_meters_for_all_plots_and_by_plot_vegetation_leaf_structure_type_/167303", "title"=>"Adjusted height values per year in meters for all plots and by plot vegetation leaf structure type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496818"], "description"=>"<p>N = number of plot samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "conifer", "vegetation"], "article_id"=>167340, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_average_plot_characteristics_within_deciduous_conifer_and_mixed_vegetation_types_/167340", "title"=>"Summary of average plot characteristics within deciduous, conifer and mixed vegetation types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:05:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496537"], "description"=>"<p>Axes are scaled differently to allow for best representation of the data. Regression relationships not shown for leaf-off lidar plot as data were not normally distributed precluding a statistically significant relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leaf-off", "leaf-on", "lidar", "fc", "estimates", "hemispherical"], "article_id"=>167050, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_leaf_off_and_leaf_on_lidar_FC_estimates_and_measured_FC_using_digital_hemispherical_photography_/167050", "title"=>"Relationships between leaf-off and leaf-on lidar FC estimates and measured FC using digital hemispherical photography.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:04:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496461"], "description"=>"<p>Regression relationships between measured average canopy height (H) and lidar values using: a) Leaf-off lidar 70<sup>th</sup> percentile; b) Leaf-on lidar 70<sup>th</sup> percentile; c) Leaf-off lidar IDW Interpolated CHM; d) Leaf-on lidar IDW Interpolated CHM; e) Leaf-off lidar Max Height CHM; f) Leaf-on lidar Max Height CHM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "canopy", "lidar", "leaf-off", "leaf-on", "idw", "interpolated", "max"], "article_id"=>166955, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_relationships_between_measured_average_canopy_height_H_and_lidar_values_using_a_Leaf_off_lidar_70_th_percentile_b_Leaf_on_lidar_70_th_percentile_c_Leaf_off_lidar_IDW_Interpolated_CHM_d_Leaf_on_lidar_IDW_Interpolated_CHM_e_Leaf_off_lidar_Max_He/166955", "title"=>"Regression relationships between measured average canopy height (H) and lidar values using: a) Leaf-off lidar 70<sup>th</sup> percentile; b) Leaf-on lidar 70<sup>th</sup> percentile; c) Leaf-off lidar IDW Interpolated CHM; d) Leaf-on lidar IDW Interpolated CHM; e) Leaf-off lidar Max Height CHM; f) Leaf-on lidar Max Height CHM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:03:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496849"], "description"=>"<p>Leaf-off and leaf-on lidar survey specifications.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leaf-on", "lidar"], "article_id"=>167372, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Leaf_off_and_leaf_on_lidar_survey_specifications_/167372", "title"=>"Leaf-off and leaf-on lidar survey specifications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:05:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496892"], "description"=>"<p>Superscripts (A,B,C) identify post-hoc Tukey test results. Means with the same superscripted letter are not statistically different (P = 0.05). Within each row, leaf-off Cv values that are starred (**) are statistically different when compared to leaf-on cv values for that row (all plots or vegetation type). Statistical differences are not detected between leaf-on and leaf-off Cv values within conifer plots (p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficient", "deviation", "non-ground", "leaf-off", "leaf-on", "lidar", "plots", "stratified", "vegetation"], "article_id"=>167406, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_coefficient_of_variation_Cv_values_and_associated_standard_deviation_of_mean_Cv_for_non_ground_leaf_off_and_leaf_on_lidar_data_within_all_plots_and_plots_stratified_by_vegetation_type_/167406", "title"=>"Average coefficient of variation (<i>Cv</i>) values and associated standard deviation of mean <i>Cv</i> for non-ground leaf-off and leaf-on lidar data within all plots and plots stratified by vegetation type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:05:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496332"], "description"=>"<p>Spring Creek Watershed: A) Context map of the United States identifying the location of the study area, Spring Creek Watershed, located in the center of Pennsylvania; B) Landuse/landcover map of Spring Creek illustrating streams, landuse and mensuration plot locations examined in the study (Landuse Data Source: Centre County Planning Commission, 2006).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["creek", "united", "states", "located", "illustrating", "landuse", "mensuration", "locations", "examined", "centre"], "article_id"=>166831, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>153, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spring_Creek_Watershed_A_Context_map_of_the_United_States_identifying_the_location_of_the_study_area_Spring_Creek_Watershed_located_in_the_center_of_Pennsylvania_B_Landuse_landcover_map_of_Spring_Creek_illustrating_streams_landuse_and_mensuration_plot_lo/166831", "title"=>"Spring Creek Watershed: A) Context map of the United States identifying the location of the study area, Spring Creek Watershed, located in the center of Pennsylvania; B) Landuse/landcover map of Spring Creek illustrating streams, landuse and mensuration plot locations examined in the study (Landuse Data Source: Centre County Planning Commission, 2006).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:02:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496742"], "description"=>"<p>ANOVA was not run on 10<sup>th</sup> percentile (<i>h<sub>10</sub></i>) values due to nonparametric distribution in leaf-off conditions.</p><p>Superscripts (A,B,C) identify post-hoc Tukey test results. Means with the same superscripted letter are not statistically different (P = 0.05). Within each row, values that are starred (**) are statistically different from other values at that percentile within that row.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "leaf-on", "lidar", "minus", "leaf-off", "percentile", "deviation"], "article_id"=>167250, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_differences_D_leaf_on_lidar_minus_leaf_off_lidar_between_leaf_on_and_leaf_off_lidar_percentile_height_values_and_associated_standard_deviation_of_mean_differences_in_meters_/167250", "title"=>"Mean differences (<i>D</i>, leaf-on lidar minus leaf-off lidar) between leaf-on and leaf-off lidar percentile height values and associated standard deviation (σ) of mean differences in meters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:05:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496650"], "description"=>"<p>Example distributions are representative of conditions observed within all plots for each vegetation type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "canopy", "returns", "leaf-off", "compared", "leaf-on", "conditions", "deciduous", "conifer"], "article_id"=>167156, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>88, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_distributions_of_canopy_laser_pulse_returns_in_leaf_off_compared_to_leaf_on_conditions_in_an_A_deciduous_compound_and_B_deciduous_simple_C_mixed_conifer_deciduous_and_D_conifer_plots_/167156", "title"=>"Example distributions of canopy laser pulse returns in leaf-off compared to leaf-on conditions in an A) deciduous compound and B) deciduous simple C) mixed conifer/deciduous and D) conifer plots.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:04:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496966"], "description"=>"<p>RMSE values are standardized relative to the mean for each vegetation type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "interpolated", "lidar", "chm", "non-interpolated", "h70", "plots", "stratified"], "article_id"=>167477, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_relationships_interpolated_lidar_CHM_CHM_interp_vs_H_non_interpolated_lidar_CHM_CHMMax_vs_H_and_h70_vs_H_for_all_plots_and_for_plots_stratified_by_leaf_structure_type_/167477", "title"=>"Regression relationships interpolated lidar CHM (CHM<sub>interp</sub>) vs. H, non-interpolated lidar CHM (CHMMax) vs. H and h70 vs. H for all plots and for plots stratified by leaf structure type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:06:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/496930"], "description"=>"<p>Differences between measured fractional cover (FC) and lidar FC estimates (lidar – measured). ANOVA was not run on leaf-off FC estimates as distributions deviated significantly from normal.</p><p>Superscripts (A,B,C) identify post-hoc Tukey test results. Means with the same superscripted letter are not statistically different (P = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratified", "vegetation"], "article_id"=>167455, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Leah Wasser", "Rick Day", "Laura Chasmer", "Alan Taylor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054776.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fractional_cover_results_stratified_by_vegetation_type_/167455", "title"=>"Fractional cover results stratified by vegetation type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:06:03"}

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Relative Metric

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