Size-Related Changes in Foot Impact Mechanics in Hoofed Mammals
Publication Date
January 30, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Sharon Elaine Warner, Phillip Pickering, Olga Panagiotopoulou, Thilo Pfau, et al
Volume
8
Issue
1
Pages
e54784
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0054784
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23382967
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3559824
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23382967
Web of Science
000315563800077
Scopus
84873836539
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/sizerelated-changes-foot-impact-mechanics-hoofed-mammals
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498896"], "description"=>"<p>a) maximum average loading rate (calculated over 0.5% rolling window throughout the impact period); b) maximum instantaneous rate of force application. Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trendlines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outcomes", "loading"], "article_id"=>169410, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcomes_for_loading_rate_/169410", "title"=>"Scaling outcomes for loading rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:36:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498642"], "description"=>"<p>Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trendlines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis. Dashed lines show non-significant scaling outcomes, i.e. the slope is not different from a slope of zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "biophysics", "physics"], "article_id"=>169160, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcome_for_impact_duration_/169160", "title"=>"Scaling outcome for impact duration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:32:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498971"], "description"=>"<p>Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trendlines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "biophysics", "physics"], "article_id"=>169486, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcome_for_peak_vertical_ground_reaction_force_GRF_/169486", "title"=>"Scaling outcome for peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:38:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499101"], "description"=>"<p>a) vertical impact impulse; b) horizontal impact impulse. Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trendlines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outcomes"], "article_id"=>169618, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcomes_for_impact_impulse_/169618", "title"=>"Scaling outcomes for impact impulse.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:40:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499163"], "description"=>"<p>a) vertical impact impulse (walk); b) horizontal impact impulse (walk). Black markers denote forelimb walk data; blue markers denote hind limb walk data. The corresponding shaded areas show two standard errors from the fitted model. Although the intersection suggests that smaller species (below ∼750 kg M<sub>b</sub>) have greater forelimb impact impulses, whereas larger species appeared to have greater hind limb impact impulses, the standard errors associated with model fitting mean these limb differences are not statistically significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors"], "article_id"=>169683, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standard_errors_of_model_fit_impact_impulse_/169683", "title"=>"Standard errors of model fit (impact impulse).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:41:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498720"], "description"=>"<p>Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trendlines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outcomes"], "article_id"=>169236, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcomes_for_effective_foot_mass_M_eff_/169236", "title"=>"Scaling outcomes for effective foot mass (M<i><sub>eff</sub></i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:33:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499496"], "description"=>"<p>Subject information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "biophysics", "physics"], "article_id"=>170010, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subject_information_/170010", "title"=>"Subject information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 00:00:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498788"], "description"=>"<p>a) walk; b) slow run. Black markers denote forelimb data; blue markers denote hind limb data. The corresponding shaded areas show two standard errors from the fitted model. Although the intersection suggests that smaller species (below ∼750 kg M<sub>b</sub>) have greater forelimb M<i><sub>eff</sub>,</i> whereas larger species appeared to have greater hind limb M<i><sub>eff</sub></i>, the standard errors associated with model fitting mean these limb differences are not statistically significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors"], "article_id"=>169307, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standard_errors_of_model_fit_M_eff_/169307", "title"=>"Standard errors of model fit (M<i><sub>eff</sub></i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479945", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479950", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479954", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479960", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479966", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479971", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479978", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479984", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479987", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479988", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479989", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479991", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479996", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/479998", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480000", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480001", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480003", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480006", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480008", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480009", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480012", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480016", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480019", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480021", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480024", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480026", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480028", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480029", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480031", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480035", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480039", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480043", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480046"], "description"=>"<div><p>Foot-ground impact is mechanically challenging for all animals, but how do large animals mitigate increased mass during foot impact? We hypothesized that impact force amplitude scales according to isometry in animals of increasing size through allometric scaling of related impact parameters. To test this, we measured limb kinetics and kinematics in 11 species of hoofed mammals ranging from 18–3157 kg body mass. We found impact force amplitude to be maintained proportional to size in hoofed mammals, but that other features of foot impact exhibit differential scaling patterns depending on the limb; forelimb parameters typically exhibit higher intercepts with lower scaling exponents than hind limb parameters. Our explorations of the size-related consequences of foot impact advance understanding of how body size influences limb morphology and function, foot design and locomotor behaviour.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["size-related", "changes", "mechanics", "hoofed", "mammals"], "article_id"=>154908, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s029", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s030", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s031", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s032", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.s033"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>210, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Size_Related_Changes_in_Foot_Impact_Mechanics_in_Hoofed_Mammals__/154908", "title"=>"Size-Related Changes in Foot Impact Mechanics in Hoofed Mammals", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 01:21:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499242"], "description"=>"<p>a) total decelerative impulse; b) total accelerative impulse. Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trendlines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outcomes"], "article_id"=>169757, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcomes_for_total_impulses_/169757", "title"=>"Scaling outcomes for total impulses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:42:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498542"], "description"=>"<p>a) vertical impact velocity; b) horizontal impact velocity. Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trend lines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis. Dashed lines show non-significant scaling outcomes, i.e. the slope is not different from a slope of zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outcomes"], "article_id"=>169061, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcomes_for_impact_velocity_/169061", "title"=>"Scaling outcomes for impact velocity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:31:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499315"], "description"=>"<p>Black markers denote forelimb walk data; blue markers denote hind limb walk data. The corresponding shaded areas show two standard errors from the fitted model. Although the intersection suggests that smaller species (below ∼300 kg M<sub>b</sub>) have greater hindlimb accelerative impulses, whereas larger species appeared to have greater forelimb impact impulses, the standard errors associated with model fitting mean these limb differences are not statistically significant in all but extreme body sizes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors", "accelerative"], "article_id"=>169829, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standard_errors_of_model_fit_total_accelerative_impulse_/169829", "title"=>"Standard errors of model fit (total accelerative impulse).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:43:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499382"], "description"=>"<p>Green unfilled markers denote walk data (fore- and hind limbs), red unfilled markers denote slow run data (fore- and hind limbs).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analysed", "froude", "numbers"], "article_id"=>169901, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_analysed_Froude_numbers_among_individuals_/169901", "title"=>"Distribution of analysed Froude numbers among individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:45:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498471"], "description"=>"<p>a) peak vertical impact force amplitude; b) peak horizontal impact force amplitude. Black markers denote forelimb walk data; grey markers denote forelimb slow run data; dark blue markers denote hind limb walk data; light blue markers denote hind limb slow run data. The correspondingly coloured trend lines represent the scaling outcome generated by the LMM analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outcomes"], "article_id"=>168989, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scaling_outcomes_for_peak_impact_force_amplitude_/168989", "title"=>"Scaling outcomes for peak impact force amplitude.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:29:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499456"], "description"=>"<p>Shown: scaling exponent (from LMM analysis), exponent standard error, p value determining if the slope of the data is significantly different from zero, p value determining if the slope of the data is significantly different from the isometric prediction, scaling analysis conclusion, scaling trend (if conclusion is not significantly different from isometry), intercept, t statistic (observed slope vs. slope predicted by isometry), degrees of freedom, number of species, number of individuals and number of impacts (i.e. instances of foot impact analysed) per impact variable. The exponent b is for the equation: log y = b log(M<sub>b</sub>)+log(a); where b is the slope (exponent); a is the elevation (y-intercept); and y is the impact parameter of interest. Asterisks denote an exponent that is significantly different from isometry.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "biophysics", "physics"], "article_id"=>169968, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinematic_impact_dynamic_parameters_/169968", "title"=>"Kinematic impact dynamic parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498370"], "description"=>"<p>a) peak vertical impact force amplitude; b) peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) amplitude; c) impact duration; d) vertical horizontal impact impulse and e) horizontal impact impulse; f) total decelerative impulse over the entire stance; g) total accelerative impulse over the entire stance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "2d", "parameters"], "article_id"=>168883, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_diagram_of_a_single_limb_8217_s_2D_force_trace_showing_impact_parameters_of_interest_/168883", "title"=>"Schematic diagram of a single limb’s 2D force trace showing impact parameters of interest.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 02:28:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499528"], "description"=>"<p>Shown: scaling exponent (from LMM analysis), exponent standard error, p value determining if the slope of the data is significantly different from zero, p value determining if the slope of the data is significantly different from the isometric prediction, scaling analysis conclusion, scaling trend (if conclusion is not significantly different from isometry), intercept, t statistic (observed slope vs. slope predicted by isometry), degrees of freedom, number of species, number of individuals and number of impacts (i.e. instances of foot impact analysed) per impact variable. The exponent b is for the equation: log y = b log(M<sub>b</sub>)+log(a); where b is the slope (exponent); a is the elevation (y-intercept); and y is the impact parameter of interest. Asterisks denote an exponent that is significantly different from isometry.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "biophysics", "physics"], "article_id"=>170046, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sharon Elaine Warner", "Phillip Pickering", "Olga Panagiotopoulou", "Thilo Pfau", "Lei Ren", "John Richard Hutchinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054784.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinetic_impact_dynamic_parameters_/170046", "title"=>"Kinetic impact dynamic parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 00:00:46"}

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Relative Metric

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