Some Structural Aspects of Language Are More Stable than Others: A Comparison of Seven Methods
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{"title"=>"Some Structural Aspects of Language Are More Stable than Others: A Comparison of Seven Methods", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dan", "last_name"=>"Dediu", "scopus_author_id"=>"18036646400"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Cysouw", "scopus_author_id"=>"24467617300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368226766", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0055009", "sgr"=>"84873835591", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0055009", "pmid"=>"23383035", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873835591"}, "id"=>"32d361d6-12d7-3cee-b685-c6686f05389c", "abstract"=>"Understanding the patterns and causes of differential structural stability is an area of major interest for the study of language change and evolution. It is still debated whether structural features have intrinsic stabilities across language families and geographic areas, or if the processes governing their rate of change are completely dependent upon the specific context of a given language or language family. We conducted an extensive literature review and selected seven different approaches to conceptualising and estimating the stability of structural linguistic features, aiming at comparing them using the same dataset, the World Atlas of Language Structures. We found that, despite profound conceptual and empirical differences between these methods, they tend to agree in classifying some structural linguistic features as being more stable than others. This suggests that there are intrinsic properties of such structural features influencing their stability across methods, language families and geographic areas. This finding is a major step towards understanding the nature of structural linguistic features and their interaction with idiosyncratic, lineage- and area-specific factors during language change and evolution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/some-structural-aspects-language-more-stable-others-comparison-seven-methods", "reader_count"=>36, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>18}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>18}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500670/Table_9.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "anthropology", "Natural language", "forces", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Nichols’ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone.0055009-Nichols2\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a> forces estimated by the seven methods.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Nichols_41_forces_estimated_by_the_seven_methods_/171168", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t009"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:19:28", "article_id"=>171168, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p >A subjective view on what combination of &#8220;forces&#8221; each method estimates. Cells represent approximate effects: + (postive effect), &#8722; (negative effect), ? (unclear), &#177; (could be positive or negative).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500530/Table_1.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["converted", "ranks", "Cultural anthropology", "anthropology", "easiness", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Estimates of stability given by the various methods, converted to relative ranks (from 0.00&#8202;=&#8202;most unstable, to 1.00&#8202;=&#8202;most stable) for easiness of comparison between methods.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_stability_given_by_the_various_methods_converted_to_relative_ranks_from_0_00_8202_8202_most_unstable_to_1_00_8202_8202_most_stable_for_easiness_of_comparison_between_methods_/171030", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t001"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:17:10", "article_id"=>171030, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p><b>ID</b> and <b>Name</b> are as in WALS <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone.0055009-Haspelmath1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>. <b>D</b> is <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone.0055009-Dediu1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a>’s <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e083&amp;representation=PNG\">, <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e084&amp;representation=PNG\"> and <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e085&amp;representation=PNG\"> are <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone.0055009-Parkvall1\" target=\"_blank\">[58]</a>’s “all families” and “accepted families only”, <b>W</b> is <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone.0055009-Wichmann1\" target=\"_blank\">[59]</a>’s “metric C”, <b>CM</b>, <b>CC</b> and <b>CR</b> are <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone.0055009-Cysouw1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>’s “Mantel”, “Coherence” and “Rank” methods, <b>M</b> represents estimates of Maslova’s stability (as implemented by us). We used <b>-D</b> and <b>-CR</b> to ensure that all estimates have the same directionality. The WALS <b>Area</b> is given as <b>P</b>honology, <b>M</b>orphology, <b>N</b>ominal <b>C</b>ategories, <b>N</b>ominal <b>S</b>yntax, <b>V</b>erbal <b>C</b>ategories, <b>W</b>ord <b>O</b>rder, <b>S</b>imple <b>C</b>lauses, <b>C</b>omplex <b>S</b>entences, <b>L</b>exicon, <b>S</b>ign <b>L</b>anguages and <b>O</b>ther. See text for details.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500573/Table_3.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "correlations", "estimates", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Pairwise correlations between stability estimates for all shared features.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_correlations_between_stability_estimates_for_all_shared_features_/171079", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t003"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:17:59", "article_id"=>171079, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>Upper diagonal: Pearson’s <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e098&amp;representation=PNG\">; lower diagonal: Spearman’s <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e099&amp;representation=PNG\">; within cells, upper line is the correlation estimate (* stands for significant correlation at <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e100&amp;representation=PNG\">-level = 0.05, **the correlation is significant at <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e101&amp;representation=PNG\">-level = 0.01; all significant correlations are in <b>bold</b>) and the lower line is the <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e102&amp;representation=PNG\">-value.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500480/Table_6.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["components", "Cultural anthropology", "Structural linguistics", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "excluding", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Principal components analysis excluding the outliers.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_components_analysis_excluding_the_outliers_/170984", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t006"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:16:24", "article_id"=>170984, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>Significant loadings with the same sign significant are in <b>bold</b> and <i>italic</i> to increase clarity.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/499968/Figure_2.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Relationships between methods.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_methods_/170473", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.g002"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:07:53", "article_id"=>170473, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p >The distances between methods computed in the 62-dimensional space defined by the relative ranks of all shared features projected using classic Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). The results excluding the outlier features are extremely similar.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500322/Table_5.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["components", "Cultural anthropology", "62", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Principal components analysis on the full set of 62 shared features.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_components_analysis_on_the_full_set_of_62_shared_features_/170827", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t005"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:13:47", "article_id"=>170827, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>Significant loadings with the same sign significant are in <b>bold</b> and <i>italic</i> to increase clarity.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/499869/Figure_1.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Relationship between different stability estimates.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_different_stability_estimates_/170380", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.g001"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:06:20", "article_id"=>170380, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p >Each panel shows the scatterplot of the stability estimates for the shared features produced by a pair of methods (grey dots) and the identified outliers (red crosses; see text for details). The regression lines with the outliers (red) and without (blue) have been drawn for convenience.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500431/Table_7.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "agreed", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "sorted", "communications", "linguistics", "stabilities"], "title"=>"<p>The shared features sorted by their agreed stabilities from the most stable to the most unstable.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_The_shared_features_sorted_by_their_agreed_stabilities_from_the_most_stable_to_the_most_unstable_/170936", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t007"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:15:36", "article_id"=>170936, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>The <b>Rank</b> represents the feature’s rank from the most “stable” (top) to the most “unstable” (bottom), the <b>ID</b> is the feature’s numeric identifier in WALS <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone.0055009-Haspelmath1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>, <b>Name</b> is the feature’s full name while <b>Abbr. name</b> is the abbreviated name, and <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e130&amp;representation=PNG\"> and <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e131&amp;representation=PNG\"> the feature’s score on the first principal component representing the agreement between all methods and excluding outliers, respectively; <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e132&amp;representation=PNG\"> – <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e133&amp;representation=PNG\"> are the loadings on principal components 2, 3 and 4 using all shared features. See text for details.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500075/Figure_3.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics", "stabilities"], "title"=>"<p>Distribution of features&#8217; stabilities across methods.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_features_8217_stabilities_across_methods_/170580", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.g003"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:09:40", "article_id"=>170580, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>Left panel: a ll shared features (given by their numeric WALS unique ID; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone-0055009-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>) plotted on the <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e127&amp;representation=PNG\">. Right panel: the distribution of the stability across the WALS areas, with the number of features of each type shown on the right. <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e128&amp;representation=PNG\"> represents the strong inter-method agreement and varies from the unstable (left) to stable (right); the actual scales of the axes are arbitrary. The colours and symbols represent the WALS areas (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone-0055009-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for details), with the open diamond <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e129&amp;representation=PNG\"> representing all shared features together. The results excluding the outlier methods are extremely similar.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500169/Figure_4.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>The features&#8217; stabilities.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_The_features_8217_stabilities_/170678", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.g004"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:11:18", "article_id"=>170678, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>The stabilities (as relative ranks from 0.0 = most unstable to 1.0 = most stable) of the shared features as estimated by all methods. Shown are the median stability (black thick lines), the interquartile range (IQR; light gray) and the individual method estimates (D, 1, 2, W, A, C, R, and M – see legend for details). The features with a significantly smaller or larger IQR than expected by chance are marked with red “<” and blue “>” symbols respectively on the right-hand side of the figure, with the number of symbols being one for <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e134&amp;representation=PNG\">, two for <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e135&amp;representation=PNG\"> and three for <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e136&amp;representation=PNG\">; please note that this is before the multiple testing correction, after which only the features with <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e137&amp;representation=PNG\">, 11 and 87, survive (see text for details). The features are represented by transparently abbreviated names derived from their full WALS names (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone-0055009-t008\" target=\"_blank\">Table 8</a>) and their WALS unique IDs.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/479229/Methods_S1.pdf", "http://files.figshare.com/479231/Script_S1", "http://files.figshare.com/479232/Dataset_S1.gz"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Historical linguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "Linguistic geography"], "title"=>"Some Structural Aspects of Language Are More Stable than Others: A Comparison of Seven Methods ", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/Some_Structural_Aspects_of_Language_Are_More_Stable_than_Others_A_Comparison_of_Seven_Methods__/154648", "defined_type"=>4, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.s001", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.s002", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.s003"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 01:17:28", "article_id"=>154648, "categories"=>["Sociology", "Environmental Science", "Behavioral Neuroscience", "Anthropology"], "description"=>"<div>\n<p>Understanding the patterns and causes of differential structural stability is an area of major interest for the study of language change and evolution. It is still debated whether structural features have intrinsic stabilities across language families and geographic areas, or if the processes governing their rate of change are completely dependent upon the specific context of a given language or language family. We conducted an extensive literature review and selected seven different approaches to conceptualising and estimating the stability of structural linguistic features, aiming at comparing them using the same dataset, the <em>World Atlas of Language Structures</em>. We found that, despite profound conceptual and empirical differences between these methods, they tend to agree in classifying some structural linguistic features as being more stable than others. This suggests that there are intrinsic properties of such structural features influencing their stability across methods, language families and geographic areas. This finding is a major step towards understanding the nature of structural linguistic features and their interaction with idiosyncratic, lineage- and area-specific factors during language change and evolution.</p>\n</div>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500621/Table_2.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "wals", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "anthropology", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Coverage of the WALS features.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Coverage_of_the_WALS_features_/171124", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t002"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:18:44", "article_id"=>171124, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p >Shown are each method&#8217;s coverage &#8211; i.e., the method provides an estimated stability &#8211; as number and percent of the 142 WALS features.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500380/Table_4.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "Structural linguistics", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "excluding", "correlations", "estimates", "communications", "linguistics"], "title"=>"<p>Pairwise correlations between stability estimates excluding the outliers.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_correlations_between_stability_estimates_excluding_the_outliers_/170874", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t004"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:14:34", "article_id"=>170874, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>Upper diagonal: Pearson’s <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e104&amp;representation=PNG\">; lower diagonal: Spearman’s <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e105&amp;representation=PNG\">; within cells, upper line is the correlation estimate (*stands for significant correlation at <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e106&amp;representation=PNG\">-level = 0.05, **the correlation is significant at <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e107&amp;representation=PNG\">-level = 0.01; all significant correlations are in <b>bold</b>) and the lower line is the <img src=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.e108&amp;representation=PNG\">-value.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/500718/Table_8.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Michael Cysouw", "Dan Dediu"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cultural anthropology", "anthropology", "Natural language", "Linguistic anthropology", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic geography", "Sociolinguistics", "Structural linguistics", "communications", "linguistics", "methods"], "title"=>"<p>Differences in stability among methods for individual features.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_stability_among_methods_for_individual_features_/171224", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009.t008"], "published_date"=>"2013-01-28 00:20:24", "article_id"=>171224, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "description"=>"<p>The features (abbreviated names are transparently based on the full WALS names and as for <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055009#pone-0055009-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>) sorted by the disagreement between methods (IQR). <b>IQR</b> (interquartile range) and <b>Range</b> (Max - Min) between relative stability ranks as given by all methods.</p>"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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