Can Common Functional Gene Variants Affect Visual Discrimination in Metacontrast Masking?
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{"title"=>"Can Common Functional Gene Variants Affect Visual Discrimination in Metacontrast Masking?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Margus", "last_name"=>"Maksimov", "scopus_author_id"=>"54404793900"}, {"first_name"=>"Mariliis", "last_name"=>"Vaht", "scopus_author_id"=>"55243019200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jaanus", "last_name"=>"Harro", "scopus_author_id"=>"16227077400"}, {"first_name"=>"Talis", "last_name"=>"Bachmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189671232"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872850802", "pui"=>"368187669", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0055287", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84872850802", "pmid"=>"23359627"}, "id"=>"c555e093-f705-37d6-b84b-d4ab04d4fd64", "abstract"=>"Mechanisms of visual perception should be robustly fast and provide veridical information about environmental objects in order to facilitate survival and successful coping. Because species-specific brain mechanisms for fast vision must have evolved under heavy pressure for efficiency, it has been held that different human individuals see the physical world in the same way and produce psychophysical functions of visual discrimination that are qualitatively the same. For many years, this assumption has been implicitly accepted in vision research studying extremely fast, basic visual processes, including studies of visual masking. However, in recent studies of metacontrast masking surprisingly robust individual differences in the qualitative aspects of subjects' performance have been found. As the basic species-specific visual functions very likely are based on universal brain mechanisms of vision, these differences probably are the outcome of variability in ontogenetic development (i.e., formation of idiosyncrasic skills of perception). Such developmental differences can be brought about by variants of genes that are differentially expressed in the course of CNS development. The objective of this study was to assess whether visual discrimination in metacontrast masking is related to three widely studied genetic polymorphisms implicated in brain function and used here as independent variables. The findings suggest no main effects of BDNF Val66Met, NRG1/rs6994992, or 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on metacontrast performance, but several notable interactions of genetic variables with gender, stage of the sequence of experimental trials, perceptual strategies, and target/mask shape congruence were found. Thus, basic behavioral functions of fast vision may be influenced by common genetic variability. Also, when left uncontrolled, genetic factors may seriously confound variables in vision research using masking, obscure clear theoretical interpretation, lead to unexplicable inter-regional differences and create problems of replicability of formerly successful experiments.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/common-functional-gene-variants-affect-visual-discrimination-metacontrast-masking", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501619"], "description"=>"<p>Proportion of correct target discrimination responses as a function of subjects' gender, stage of the experiment (first, second or third section in a tripartite division of the successive trials) and gene polymorphisms of the subjects (Val/Val vs Val/Met). Met allele carrying males show relatively higher correct perception rate early in the experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bdnf", "val66met", "polymorphisms"], "article_id"=>172135, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Margus Maksimov", "Mariliis Vaht", "Jaanus Harro", "Talis Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055287.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_gender_stage_of_experiment_and_BDNF_Val66Met_gene_polymorphisms_on_masking_/172135", "title"=>"Effects of gender, stage of experiment and BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphisms on masking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:32:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501718"], "description"=>"<p>Proportion of correct target discrimination responses as a function of SOA between target and mask, perceptual strategy used by subjects (concentrate on corners/edges of targets near the mask inner contours or not using this strategy) and gene polymorphisms of the subjects (Val/Val vs Val/Met). Met allele carrying subjects who do not use the corners/edges perceptual strategy show relatively higher correct perception rate with longest SOA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["perceptual", "bdnf", "val66met", "polymorphisms"], "article_id"=>172232, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Margus Maksimov", "Mariliis Vaht", "Jaanus Harro", "Talis Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055287.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_SOA_perceptual_strategy_and_BDNF_Val66Met_gene_polymorphisms_on_masking_/172232", "title"=>"Effects of SOA, perceptual strategy and BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphisms on masking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:32:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501538"], "description"=>"<p>Proportion of correct target discrimination responses as a function of subjects' gender, SOA between target and mask and gene polymorphisms of the subjects (Val/Val vs Val/Met). Met allele carrying males show relatively higher correct perception rate with intermediate SOA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["soa", "bdnf", "val66met", "polymorphisms"], "article_id"=>172058, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Margus Maksimov", "Mariliis Vaht", "Jaanus Harro", "Talis Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055287.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_gender_SOA_and_BDNF_Val66Met_gene_polymorphisms_on_masking_/172058", "title"=>"Effects of gender, SOA and BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphisms on masking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:31:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501811"], "description"=>"<p>Proportion of correct target discrimination trials as a function of subjects' gender and target/mask shape congruence in the sub-sample of subjects, T allele carriers of the NRG1/rs6994992 gene polymorphism. When target and mask stimuli shapes were incongruent, males' level of metacontrast discrimination was higher than females' level of metacontrast discrimination while gender had no significant effect when target and mask shapes were congruent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["congruence", "polymorphisms"], "article_id"=>172331, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Margus Maksimov", "Mariliis Vaht", "Jaanus Harro", "Talis Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055287.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_gender_target_mask_congruence_and_NRG1_rs6994992_gene_polymorphisms_on_masking_/172331", "title"=>"Effects of gender, target/mask congruence and NRG1/rs6994992 gene polymorphisms on masking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:33:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/501482"], "description"=>"<p>Illustration of the typical sequence of events in a trial of metacontrast masking (A) and examples of the stimuli (B). Targets precede masks by SOAs of 23, 47, or 70 ms and target/mask shapes can be either congruent or incongruent in single trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["targets", "masks", "events"], "article_id"=>171994, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Margus Maksimov", "Mariliis Vaht", "Jaanus Harro", "Talis Bachmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055287.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_targets_and_masks_and_events_in_an_experimental_trial_/171994", "title"=>"Examples of targets and masks and events in an experimental trial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:31:09"}

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