Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Anatabine
Publication Date
January 30, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Daniel Paris, David Beaulieu Abdelahad, Myles Mullan, Ghania Ait Ghezala, et al
Volume
8
Issue
1
Pages
e55392
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055392
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23383175
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3559544
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23383175
Web of Science
000315563800147
Scopus
84873833950
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/amelioration-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-anatabine
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Anatabine", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Paris", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006549940"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "scopus_author_id"=>"35572711500"}, {"first_name"=>"Myles", "last_name"=>"Mullan", "scopus_author_id"=>"15127784300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ghania", "last_name"=>"Ait-Ghezala", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507554321"}, {"first_name"=>"Venkat", "last_name"=>"Mathura", "scopus_author_id"=>"23100400900"}, {"first_name"=>"Corbin", "last_name"=>"Bachmeier", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508232262"}, {"first_name"=>"Fiona", "last_name"=>"Crawford", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102173505"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Mullan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005399886"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84873833950", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0055392", "pui"=>"368227208", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23383175", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873833950"}, "id"=>"a458622a-c3a6-322d-b604-b6591e458270", "abstract"=>"Anatabine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, is becoming a commonly used human food supplement, taken for its claimed anti-inflammatory properties although this has not yet been reported in human clinical trials. We have previously shown that anatabine does display certain anti-inflammatory properties and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier suggesting it could represent an important compound for mitigating neuro-inflammatory conditions. The present study was designed to determine whether anatabine had beneficial effects on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice and to precisely determine its underlying mechanism of action in this mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We found that orally administered anatabine markedly suppressed neurological deficits associated with EAE. Analyses of cytokine production in the periphery of the animals revealed that anatabine significantly reduced Th1 and Th17 cytokines known to contribute to the development of EAE. Anatabine appears to significantly suppress STAT3 and p65 NFκB phosphorylation in the spleen and the brain of EAE mice. These two transcription factors regulate a large array of inflammatory genes including cytokines suggesting a mechanism by which anatabine antagonizes pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Additionally, we found that anatabine alleviated the infiltration of macrophages/microglia and astrogliosis and significantly prevented demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Altogether our data suggest that anatabine may be effective in the treatment of MS and should be piloted in clinical trials.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/amelioration-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-anatabine", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84873833950"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84873833950?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84873833950&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84873833950&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84873833950", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84873833950", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84873833950", "dc:title"=>"Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Anatabine", "dc:creator"=>"Paris D.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"1", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-01-30", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"30 January 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0055392", "citedby-count"=>"16", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Roskamp Institute", "affiliation-city"=>"Sarasota", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23383175", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e55392", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0055392", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"613"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"88", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"971"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"382"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"299"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"333"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"409"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"390"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"241"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"253"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"118"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/500019"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields of longitudinal sections of the spinal cord from control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice stained with Luxol fast blue are shown. The histogram represents the average Luxol fast blue burden observed in the spinal cord of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA reveals a significant main effect of EAE (P<0.001) and of anatabine (P<0.001) on Luxol fast blue burden in the spinal cord. Post-hoc comparisons show statistically significant differences for the average Luxol fast blue burden between control and EAE placebo mice (P<0.001) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevents", "demyelination", "spinal", "eae"], "article_id"=>170532, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_prevents_demyelination_in_the_spinal_cord_of_EAE_mice_/170532", "title"=>"Anatabine prevents demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:23:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499017"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields revealing phosphorylated STAT3 immunopositive cells in the spinal cord of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice are shown. The histogram represents the average number of phosphorylated STAT3 immunopositive cells observed in the spinal cord of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. Results were expressed as a percentage of phospho-STAT3 immunopositive cells observed in EAE placebo mice. ANOVA reveals a statistically significant main effect of EAE (P<0.001) and of anatabine (P<0.001) on the number of phosphorylated STAT3 immunoreactive cells. Post-hoc comparisons shows statistically significant differences in the number of phospho-STAT3 immunopositive cells in the spinal cord between control and EAE placebo mice (P<0.001) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phosphorylated", "stat3", "immunopositive", "cells", "spinal", "eae"], "article_id"=>169525, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_reduces_the_amount_of_phosphorylated_STAT3_immunopositive_cells_in_the_spinal_cord_of_EAE_mice_/169525", "title"=>"Anatabine reduces the amount of phosphorylated STAT3 immunopositive cells in the spinal cord of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:17:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498724"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative western-blots depicting STAT3 phosphorylation levels in brain homogenates from control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice are shown. B) Histogram showing the average STAT3 phosphorylation levels observed in the brain of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA reveals a statistically significant main effect of EAE (P<0.003) and of anatabine (P = 0.02) on brain STAT3 phosphorylation levels. Post-hoc comparisons show statistically significant differences in brain STAT3 phosphorylation levels between control and EAE placebo mice (P<0.004) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P<0.035). C) Histogram representing the average p65 NFκB phosphorylation levels observed in the brain of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA shows a statistically significant main effect of EAE (P<0.003) and anatabine (P<0.001) on brain p65 NFκB phosphorylation levels. Post-hoc comparisons reveal statistically significant differences in brain p65 NFκB phosphorylation levels between control and EAE placebo mice (P<0.005) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevents", "stat3", "p65", "phosphorylation", "eae"], "article_id"=>169233, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_prevents_STAT3_and_p65_NF_954_B_phosphorylation_in_the_brain_of_EAE_mice_/169233", "title"=>"Anatabine prevents STAT3 and p65 NFκB phosphorylation in the brain of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:15:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499375"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields revealing Iba1 immunopositive microglial cells in the cortex, hippocampus and medulla of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice are shown. The histogram represents the average amount of Iba1 burden observed in the cortex, hippocampus and medulla of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA shows statistically significant main effect of EAE (P<0.001) and of anatabine (P = 0.001) on Iba1 burden. Post-hoc analyses reveal statistically significant differences in Iba1 burden in the hippocampus and medulla between EAE placebo and control mice (P<0.005) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P<0.025). No statistically significant difference in Iba1 burden was observed in the cortex between control and EAE placebo mice (P = 0.132).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microgliosis", "eae"], "article_id"=>169890, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_reduces_microgliosis_in_the_brain_of_EAE_mice_/169890", "title"=>"Anatabine reduces microgliosis in the brain of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:19:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498544"], "description"=>"<p>Representative western-blots showing the level of STAT3 phosphorylation in spleen homogenates from control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice are shown. The histograms represents the average ratio of phosphorylated STAT3/Actin observed in control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA reveals a statistically significant main effect of EAE (P<0.001) and of anatabine (P<0.003) on STAT3 phosphorylation levels in the spleen. Post-hoc comparisons show statistically significant differences in the amount of spleen STAT3 phosphorylation between control and EAE placebo mice (P<0.001) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P = 0.045).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inhibits", "stat3", "phosphorylation", "spleen", "eae"], "article_id"=>169053, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_inhibits_STAT3_phosphorylation_in_the_spleen_of_EAE_mice_/169053", "title"=>"Anatabine inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation in the spleen of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:15:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499553"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields of longitudinal sections of the spinal cord stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Intense mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of the peripheral white matter in the spinal cord of EAE placebo mice is evident compared to control mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mononuclear", "infiltration", "spinal", "eae"], "article_id"=>170062, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_reduces_mononuclear_cell_infiltration_in_the_spinal_cord_of_EAE_mice_/170062", "title"=>"Anatabine reduces mononuclear cell infiltration in the spinal cord of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:20:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499736"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields of longitudinal sections of the spinal cord from control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice immunostained with the microglia/macrophage marker Iba1 are shown. The histogram depicts the amount of Iba1 burden observed in the spinal cord of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA reveals a significant main effect of EAE (P<0.001) and of anatabine (P<0.009) on Iba1 burden in the spinal cord. Post-hoc comparisons show statistically significant differences for the average Iba1 burden between control and EAE placebo mice (P<0.001) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P = 0.025).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["iba1", "spinal", "eae"], "article_id"=>170251, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_reduces_Iba1_burden_in_the_spinal_cord_of_EAE_mice_/170251", "title"=>"Anatabine reduces Iba1 burden in the spinal cord of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:21:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498449"], "description"=>"<p>A) Average amount of anti-MOG antibodies measured by ELISA in the serum of control non-immunized mice, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice at day 16 following the MOG immunization. ANOVA reveals a significant main effect of the MOG immunization on the titer of anti-MOG antibodies (P<0.001) but no significant main effect of anatabine (P = 0.617). B) Anatabine inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of EAE mice. A significant elevation of TNF-α (Mann-Whitney U = 16.5, Z = −2.22, P = 0.026), IL-1β (Mann-Whitney U = 0, Z = −3.506, P<0.001), IL-6 (Mann-Whitney U = 3, Z = −3.271, P<0.001), IFN-γ (Mann-Whitney U = 16.5, Z = −2.219, P = 0.026) and IL-17 (Mann-Whitney U = 7, Z = −2.958, P = 0.003) was observed in the serum of EAE mice (placebo) compared to control non-immunized mice. Anatabine significantly prevented the production of IL-1β (Mann-Whitney U = 44, Z = −2.666, P = 0.008), IL-6 (Mann-Whitney U = 59, Z = −2.008, P = 0.045) and IL-17 (Mann-Whitney U = 47, Z = −2.531, P = 0.011) in the serum of EAE mice. C) Anatabine suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the spleen of EAE mice. A statistically significant elevation of TNF-α (Mann-Whitney U = 3, Z = −3.270, P = 0.001) and IL-1β (Mann-Whitney U = 0, Z = −3.503, P<0.001) was observed in the spleen of EAE placebo mice compared to control non-immunized mice. A significant decrease in TNF-α (Mann-Whitney U = 22, Z = −3.622, P<0.001), IL-1β (Mann-Whitney U = 9, Z = −4.19, P<0.001) and IL-17 (Mann-Whitney U = 55, Z = −1.976, P<0.05) was observed in the spleen of anatabine treated EAE mice compared to placebo EAE mice. (* P<0.05 for EAE placebo mice vs control non-immunized mice; ¤ P<0.05 for EAE placebo mice vs EAE anatabine treated mice).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatabine", "inhibits", "pro-inflammatory", "cytokines", "titer", "circulating", "anti-mog"], "article_id"=>168953, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Administration_of_anatabine_inhibits_pro_inflammatory_cytokines_but_does_not_affect_the_titer_of_circulating_anti_MOG_antibodies_/168953", "title"=>"Administration of anatabine inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines but does not affect the titer of circulating anti-MOG antibodies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:14:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499110"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields revealing GFAP immunopositive astrocytes in the cortex, hippocampus and medulla of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice are shown. The histogram represents the average amount of GFAP burden observed in the cortex, hippocampus and medulla of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA shows statistically significant main effect of EAE (P<0.002) and of the area of the brain examined (P<0.002) but no significant main effect of anatabine (P = 0.646) on GFAP burden. Post-hoc analyses reveal statistically significant differences in GFAP burden in the cortex between EAE placebo and control mice (P<0.003) and in the medulla between EAE placebo and control mice (P<0.003).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["astrogliosis", "eae"], "article_id"=>169623, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_does_not_affect_brain_astrogliosis_in_EAE_mice_/169623", "title"=>"Anatabine does not affect brain astrogliosis in EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:18:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498869"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields revealing phosphorylated STAT3 immunopositive cells in the cortex of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice are shown. The histogram represents the average number of phosphorylated STAT3 immunopositive cells observed in the cortex of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. Results were expressed as a percentage of phospho-STAT3 immunopositive cells observed in EAE placebo mice. ANOVA reveals a statistically significant main effect of EAE (P<0.001) and of anatabine (P<0.001) on the number of phosphorylated STAT3 immunoreactive cells. Post-hoc comparisons shows statistically significant differences in the number of phospho-STAT3 immunopositive cells between control and EAE placebo mice (P<0.001) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phosphorylated", "stat3", "immunopositive", "cells", "cortex", "eae"], "article_id"=>169380, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_reduces_the_amount_of_phosphorylated_STAT3_immunopositive_cells_in_the_cortex_of_EAE_mice_/169380", "title"=>"Anatabine reduces the amount of phosphorylated STAT3 immunopositive cells in the cortex of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:16:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/498332"], "description"=>"<p>C57BL/6 mice were treated with 20 mg/Kg of body weight/day of anatabine directly dissolved in their drinking water or received regular drinking water (placebo) starting on the first day of the immunization (day 1). Mice were monitored daily for clinical disease and scored for clinical symptoms. A) Incidence of clinical symptoms of EAE in placebo and anatabine treated mice. MOG35–55 immunized mice receiving regular drinking water (placebo) develops clinical symptoms of EAE from day 6 after immunization whereas anatabine treated mice were present at day 6 following the immunization in placebo mice whereas the first incidence of EAE clinical symptoms was delayed to day 11 in anatabine treated mice. B) Anatabine reduces the clinical severity of EAE. Data for each point represents the average disease symptom score ± SEM. ANOVA reveals a significant main effect of anatabine (P<0.001) and time (P<0.001) as well as a significant interactive term between them (P<0.002) on the clinical severity of EAE. Post-hoc comparisons show statistically significant differences between the average clinical severity of EAE in the placebo and the anatabine treatment group from day 11 post-immunization to day 16 (* P<0.03). C) Anatabine suppresses the incidence of hind limb weakness/paralysis in EAE. By day 16 following the MOG immunization approximately 70% of the mice in the placebo group present hind limb weakness or complete paralysis whereas only 20% of the mice in the anatabine treatment group develop such symptoms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatabine", "ameliorates"], "article_id"=>168833, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Treatment_with_anatabine_ameliorates_the_clinical_course_of_EAE_/168833", "title"=>"Treatment with anatabine ameliorates the clinical course of EAE.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:13:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499870"], "description"=>"<p>Representative 40X microscopic fields of longitudinal sections of the spinal cord from control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice immunostained with an anti-GFAP antibody are shown. The histogram depicts the average GFAP burden observed in the spinal cord of control, EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice. ANOVA reveals a significant main effect of EAE (P = 0.002) and of anatabine (P = 0.026) on GFAP burden in the spinal cord. Post-hoc comparisons show statistically significant differences for the average GFAP burden between control and EAE placebo mice (P = 0.001) and between EAE placebo and EAE anatabine treated mice (P = 0.039).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["astrogliosis", "spinal", "eae"], "article_id"=>170386, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Daniel Paris", "David Beaulieu-Abdelahad", "Myles Mullan", "Ghania Ait-Ghezala", "Venkat Mathura", "Corbin Bachmeier", "Fiona Crawford", "Michael J. Mullan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055392.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatabine_reduces_the_astrogliosis_in_the_spinal_cord_of_EAE_mice_/170386", "title"=>"Anatabine reduces the astrogliosis in the spinal cord of EAE mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:22:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"25", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"36", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[275, 472, 605, 720, 822, 921, 1013, 1106, 1200, 1289, 1378, 1459, 1531]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[266, 466, 591, 701, 799, 887, 982, 1067, 1155, 1237, 1317, 1395, 1458]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[253, 430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Clinical medicine", "average_usage"=>[263, 451, 582, 699, 797, 889, 969, 1045, 1134, 1215, 1284, 1362, 1412]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[262, 463, 587, 693, 790, 882, 965, 1051, 1135, 1218, 1300, 1376, 1438]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Neurology", "average_usage"=>[271, 485, 617, 733, 835, 933, 1026, 1115, 1207, 1294, 1386, 1475, 1543]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[258, 449, 572, 679, 775, 866, 956, 1041, 1124, 1211, 1291, 1371, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[259, 431, 541, 639, 727, 816, 898, 980, 1061, 1136, 1214, 1294, 1356]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts