Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
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{"title"=>"Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rui", "last_name"=>"Nouchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"16480937500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yasuyuki", "last_name"=>"Taki", "scopus_author_id"=>"35729609800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hikaru", "last_name"=>"Takeuchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35424418300"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroshi", "last_name"=>"Hashizume", "scopus_author_id"=>"35728592500"}, {"first_name"=>"Takayuki", "last_name"=>"Nozawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"55175055700"}, {"first_name"=>"Toshimune", "last_name"=>"Kambara", "scopus_author_id"=>"55388149300"}, {"first_name"=>"Atsushi", "last_name"=>"Sekiguchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35424399800"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos Makoto", "last_name"=>"Miyauchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"54879801600"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuka", "last_name"=>"Kotozaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"51565647600"}, {"first_name"=>"Haruka", "last_name"=>"Nouchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55175792000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryuta", "last_name"=>"Kawashima", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005986241"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84873540417", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0055518", "pui"=>"368304364", "pmid"=>"23405164", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873540417", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"86f69db3-366e-367a-9156-2e5b5e86a88b", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/brain-training-game-boosts-executive-functions-working-memory-processing-speed-young-adults-randomiz", "reader_count"=>250, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Researcher"=>38, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>52, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>41, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>57, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Researcher"=>38, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>52, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>41, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>57, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>20, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>8, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>31, "Neuroscience"=>24, "Design"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>6, "Psychology"=>116, "Social Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>31}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>116}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>24}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>20}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>2, "Argentina"=>1, "Uruguay"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "Netherlands"=>3, "Sweden"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>12}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482902", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482906", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482916"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (<em>Brain Age</em>) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults.</p> <h3>Methods</h3><p>We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (<em>Brain Age</em>) and a popular puzzle game (<em>Tetris</em>). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (<em>Brain Age</em>, <em>Tetris</em>). Participants in both the <em>Brain Age</em> and the <em>Tetris</em> groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability).</p> <h3>Results and Discussion</h3><p>Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields.</p> <h3>Trial Registration</h3><p>UMIN Clinical Trial Registry <a href=\"http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/000005618\">000005618</a>.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["boosts", "randomized", "controlled", "trial"], "article_id"=>155945, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Rui Nouchi", "Yasuyuki Taki", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Takayuki Nozawa", "Toshimune Kambara", "Atsushi Sekiguchi", "Carlos Makoto Miyauchi", "Yuka Kotozaki", "Haruka Nouchi", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Brain_Training_Game_Boosts_Executive_Functions_Working_Memory_and_Processing_Speed_in_the_Young_Adults_A_Randomized_Controlled_Trial__/155945", "title"=>"Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:39:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/493693"], "description"=>"<p>CONSORT diagram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>164202, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Rui Nouchi", "Yasuyuki Taki", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Takayuki Nozawa", "Toshimune Kambara", "Atsushi Sekiguchi", "Carlos Makoto Miyauchi", "Yuka Kotozaki", "Haruka Nouchi", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CONSORT_diagram_/164202", "title"=>"CONSORT diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:10:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/493874"], "description"=>"<p>No significant difference was found between <i>Brain Age</i> and <i>Tetris</i> groups (two sample <i>t</i>-test, <i>p</i>>0.10). Effect size estimates were calculated using Cohen’s <i>d</i>. <i>d</i> = 0.20 is regarded as a small effect, <i>d = </i>0.50 as a medium effect, and <i>d = </i>0.80 as a large effect. M, number of men; F, number of women; JART, Japanese Reading test; RAPMT, Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices Test; SD, standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>164387, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Rui Nouchi", "Yasuyuki Taki", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Takayuki Nozawa", "Toshimune Kambara", "Atsushi Sekiguchi", "Carlos Makoto Miyauchi", "Yuka Kotozaki", "Haruka Nouchi", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_participants_in_the_Brain_Age_and_Tetris_groups_/164387", "title"=>"Characteristics of participants in the <i>Brain Age</i> and <i>Tetris</i> groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:13:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/493909"], "description"=>"<p>Group comparison (two sample <i>t</i>-tests) of the pre-training scores revealed no significant difference in any measure of cognitive functions between the brain training group and the <i>Tetris</i> training group (<i>p</i>>0.10). Effect size estimates were calculated using Cohen’s <i>d</i>. <i>d</i> = 0.20 is regarded as small effect, <i>d = </i>0.50 as medium effect, and <i>d = </i>0.80 as large effect. Pre, pre-training; post, post-training; SD, standard deviation. Fluid intelligence was measured using Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices Test (RAPMT). Executive functions were measured using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Stroop Task (ST). Working memory was measured using the Operation Span (OpS), letter–number sequence (LNS), arithmetic (Ari). Short-term memory was measured using the Digit Span (DS) and Spatial Span (SpS). Attention was measured using the Digit Cancellation Task (D-CAT) and Simple Reaction Time (SRT). Processing speed was measured using the Digit Symbol Coding (Cd) and Symbol Search. Visuo-spatial ability was measured using the Mental Rotation task (MT). Reading (verbal) ability was measured using the Japanese Reading Test (JART).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores"], "article_id"=>164421, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Rui Nouchi", "Yasuyuki Taki", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Takayuki Nozawa", "Toshimune Kambara", "Atsushi Sekiguchi", "Carlos Makoto Miyauchi", "Yuka Kotozaki", "Haruka Nouchi", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cognitive_function_scores_at_before_and_after_training_in_both_groups_/164421", "title"=>"Cognitive function scores at before and after training in both groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:13:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/493954"], "description"=>"<p>Change scores were calculated by subtracting the pre-cognitive measure score from the post-cognitive measure score. We conducted the two types of permutation tests of an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for the change scores in each of cognitive tests. In the first ANCOVA, pre-training scores in each cognitive test, sex, and age were the covariates. The results were presented in lines of results of ANCOVAs. In the second ANCOVA, pre-training scores in each cognitive test, sex, age and pre-training score of SRT were the covariates. The results were presented in lines of results of additional ANCOVAs. The level of significance was set at <i>p</i><0.05.</p><p>Moreover, we report eta square (η2) as an index of effect size. As a descriptive index of strength of association between an experimental factor (main effect or interaction effect) and a dependent variable, η2 is defined as the proportion of total variation attributable to the factor, and it ranges in value from 0 to 1. η2≥0.01 is regarded as a small effect, η2≥0.06 as a medium effect, and η2≥0.14 as a large effect.</p><p>SD, standard deviation. Fluid intelligence was measured using Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices Test (RAPMT). Executive functions were measured using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Stroop Task (ST). Working memory was measured using the Operation Span (OpS), letter–number sequence (LNS), arithmetic (Ari). Short-term memory was measured using the Digit Span (DS) and Spatial Span (SpS). Attention was measured using the Digit Cancellation Task (D-CAT) and Simple Reaction Time (SRT). Processing speed was measured using the Digit Symbol Coding (Cd) and Symbol Search. Visuo-spatial ability was measured using the Mental Rotation task (MT). Reading (verbal) ability was measured using the Japanese Reading Test (JART).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores", "functions", "measures"], "article_id"=>164462, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Rui Nouchi", "Yasuyuki Taki", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Takayuki Nozawa", "Toshimune Kambara", "Atsushi Sekiguchi", "Carlos Makoto Miyauchi", "Yuka Kotozaki", "Haruka Nouchi", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_scores_in_cognitive_functions_measures_of_both_groups_/164462", "title"=>"Change scores in cognitive functions measures of both groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:14:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/493993"], "description"=>"<p>Significant differences were found between first and last game scores in both <i>Brain Age</i> and <i>Tetris</i> (paired <i>t</i>-test, <i>p</i><0.05). Effect size estimates were calculated using Cohen's <i>d</i>. <i>d</i> = 0.20 is regarded as a small effect, <i>d = </i>0.50 as medium effect, and <i>d = </i>0.80 as large effect. In the <i>Brain Age</i> group, the maximum number of training days on each training game was different because the training games were added to the training list through training. Pre, pre-training; post, post-training; M, mean; SD, standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores"], "article_id"=>164509, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Rui Nouchi", "Yasuyuki Taki", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Takayuki Nozawa", "Toshimune Kambara", "Atsushi Sekiguchi", "Carlos Makoto Miyauchi", "Yuka Kotozaki", "Haruka Nouchi", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_First_and_last_game_scores_in_both_Brain_Age_and_Tetris_training_groups_/164509", "title"=>"First and last game scores in both <i>Brain Age</i> and <i>Tetris</i> training groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:15:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494049"], "description"=>"<p>No significant difference was found between <i>Brain Age</i> and <i>Tetris</i> groups (two sample <i>t</i>-test, <i>p</i>>0.10). Effect size estimates were calculated using Cohen's <i>d</i>. <i>d</i> = 0.20 is regarded as a small effect, <i>d = </i>0.50 as a medium effect, and <i>d = </i>0.80 as a large effect. M, number of men; F, number of women; Motivation, motivation of playing the video game during the intervention period; Fatigue, fatigue during the intervention period; Satisfaction, satisfaction of the intervention during the intervention period; Enjoyment, enjoyment of the video game during the intervention period; SD, standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>164556, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Rui Nouchi", "Yasuyuki Taki", "Hikaru Takeuchi", "Hiroshi Hashizume", "Takayuki Nozawa", "Toshimune Kambara", "Atsushi Sekiguchi", "Carlos Makoto Miyauchi", "Yuka Kotozaki", "Haruka Nouchi", "Ryuta Kawashima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055518.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subjective_feeling_for_intervention_in_the_Brain_Age_and_Tetris_groups_/164556", "title"=>"Subjective feeling for intervention in the <i>Brain Age</i> and <i>Tetris</i> groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:15:56"}

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Relative Metric

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