Cryptococcus gattii Induces a Cytokine Pattern That Is Distinct from Other Cryptococcal Species
Publication Date
January 31, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Teske Schoffelen, Maria Teresa Illnait Zaragozi, Leo A. B. Joosten, Mihai G. Netea, et al
Volume
8
Issue
1
Pages
e55579
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055579
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23383232
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3561320
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23383232
Web of Science
000314610600128
Scopus
84873182892
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/cryptococcus-gattii-induces-cytokine-pattern-distinct-other-cryptococcal-species
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480968"], "description"=>"<div><p>Understanding more about the host's immune response to different <em>Cryptococcus</em> spp. will provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of cryptocococcis. We hypothesized that the ability of <em>C. gattii</em> to cause disease in immunocompetent humans depends on a distinct innate cytokine response of the host to this emerging pathogen. In the current study we assessed the cytokine profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy individuals, after <em>in vitro</em> stimulation with 40 different well-defined heat-killed isolates of <em>C. gattii</em>, <em>C. neoformans</em> and several hybrid strains. In addition, we investigated the involvement of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to <em>C. gattii</em>. Isolates of <em>C. gattii</em> induced higher concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 and the Th17/22 cytokine IL-17 and IL-22 compared to <em>C. neoformans</em> var <em>neoformans</em> and <em>C. neoformans</em> var <em>grubii</em>. In addition, clinical <em>C. gattii</em> isolates induced higher amounts of cytokines than environmental isolates. This difference was not observed in <em>C. neoformans</em> var. <em>grubii</em> isolates. Furthermore, we demonstrated a likely contribution of TLR4 and TLR9, but no role for TLR2, in the host's cytokine response to <em>C. gattii</em>. In conclusion, clinical heat-killed <em>C. gattii</em> isolates induced a more pronounced inflammatory response compared to other <em>Cryptococcus</em> species and non-clinical <em>C. gattii</em>. This is dependent on TLR4 and TLR9 as cellular receptors.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induces", "cytokine", "cryptococcal", "species"], "article_id"=>155246, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cryptococcus_gattii_Induces_a_Cytokine_Pattern_That_Is_Distinct_from_Other_Cryptococcal_Species__/155246", "title"=>"<em>Cryptococcus gattii</em> Induces a Cytokine Pattern That Is Distinct from Other Cryptococcal Species", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 01:27:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497124"], "description"=>"<p>IL-17 and IL-22 production after 7 d by PBMCs stimulated with RPMI+, either one of 40 different heat-killed <i>Cryptococcus</i> strains [10<sup>7</sup> microorganisms/mL] or heat-killed <i>Candida albicans</i> [10<sup>5</sup> microorganisms/mL] is shown respectively. Mean values ± SE (n = 5) of three independent experiments are presented.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strains", "induce", "amounts"], "article_id"=>167633, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_All_forty_Cryptococcus_strains_induce_low_amounts_of_IL_17_but_high_amounts_of_IL_22_/167633", "title"=>"All forty <i>Cryptococcus</i> strains induce low amounts of IL-17, but high amounts of IL-22.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:07:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497237"], "description"=>"<p>The forty heat-killed <i>Cryptococcus</i> isolates are grouped according to (sub)species. Cytokine production by human PBMCs after 24 h (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1Ra) and 7 d (IL-17 and IL-22) incubation is shown. Mean values (n = 5 to 7) ± SE of three independent experiments are presented. *, p 0.01 to 0.05; **, p 0.001 to 0.01; ***, p<0.001. The horizontal line represents the lower detection limit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["isolates", "interspecies", "hybrids"], "article_id"=>167751, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_C_gattii_isolates_and_interspecies_hybrids_with_C_neoformans_isolates_and_hybrids_between_both_C_neoformans_varieties_/167751", "title"=>"Comparison of <i>C. gattii</i> isolates and interspecies hybrids with <i>C. neoformans</i> isolates and hybrids between both <i>C. neoformans</i> varieties.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:09:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497394"], "description"=>"<p>Heat killed clinical isolates of <i>C. gattii</i> are compared to environmental <i>C. gattii</i> isolates and to clinical isolates of <i>C. neoformans</i>. The clinical isolates of <i>C. gattii</i> genotype AFLP6/VGII are depicted separately. Mean values (n = 5 to 7) ± SE values of three independent experiments are presented. *, p 0.01 to 0.05; **, p 0.001 to 0.01; ***, p<0.001. The horizontal line represents the lower detection limit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytokine", "pbmcs", "induced", "cryptococcal"], "article_id"=>167910, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_cytokine_production_by_PBMCs_induced_by_clinical_or_environmental_cryptococcal_isolates_/167910", "title"=>"Comparison of cytokine production by PBMCs induced by clinical or environmental cryptococcal isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:11:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497563"], "description"=>"<p>Cytokine production by human PBMCs after 24 h (IL-6) and 7 d (IL-22) incubation with heat-killed isolates is shown. Mean values (n = 7) ± SE of three independent experiments are presented. ns, not significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytokine", "pbmcs", "induced", "var"], "article_id"=>168081, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_cytokine_production_by_PBMCs_induced_by_clinical_or_environmental_C_neoformans_var_grubii_isolates_/168081", "title"=>"Comparison of cytokine production by PBMCs induced by clinical or environmental <i>C. neoformans</i> var <i>grubii</i> isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:14:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497656"], "description"=>"<p>Cytokine production by human PBMCs preincubated for one hour with culture medium (white bar) or PRR blocking reagents (dark gray bars) or their control (light gray bar) prior to stimulation with heat-killed <i>C. gattii</i> (strain B5742) [10<sup>7</sup>/ml]. IL-1β is determined after 24 h incubation, IL-17 is determined after 7 d incubation. Mean values ± SE of eight individuals in 4 independent experiments (IL-17) or six individuals in 5 independent experiments (IL-1β) (with exclusion of additional four individuals with undetectable cytokine induction by <i>C. gattii</i>) are presented. *, p 0.01 to 0.05. The horizontal line represents the lower detection limit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tlr4", "tlr9", "il-17", "induction"], "article_id"=>168169, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_role_of_TLR2_TLR4_and_TLR9_in_IL_1_and_IL_17_induction_by_C_gattii_/168169", "title"=>"The role of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in IL-1β and IL-17 induction by <i>C. gattii</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:16:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497717"], "description"=>"<p>Details of the 40 cryptococcal isolates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["40", "cryptococcal"], "article_id"=>168233, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_the_40_cryptococcal_isolates_/168233", "title"=>"Details of the 40 cryptococcal isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:17:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/497755"], "description"=>"<p>Details of 11 additional <i>C. neoformans</i> var <i>grubii</i> isolates, arranged by Microsatellite Complex (MC) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579#pone.0055579-IllnaitZaragozi1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["11", "var", "arranged", "microsatellite"], "article_id"=>168270, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Teske Schoffelen", "Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi", "Leo A. B. Joosten", "Mihai G. Netea", "Teun Boekhout", "Jacques F. Meis", "Tom Sprong"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055579.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_11_additional_C_neoformans_var_grubii_isolates_arranged_by_Microsatellite_Complex_MC_29_/168270", "title"=>"Details of 11 additional <i>C. neoformans</i> var <i>grubii</i> isolates, arranged by Microsatellite Complex (MC) [29].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-31 02:17:50"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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Relative Metric

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