Basis for Cumulative Cultural Evolution in Chimpanzees: Social Learning of a More Efficient Tool-Use Technique
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{"title"=>"Basis for Cumulative Cultural Evolution in Chimpanzees: Social Learning of a More Efficient Tool-Use Technique", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Shinya", "last_name"=>"Yamamoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"55475492000"}, {"first_name"=>"Tatyana", "last_name"=>"Humle", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508390015"}, {"first_name"=>"Masayuki", "last_name"=>"Tanaka", "scopus_author_id"=>"55502217400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368227274", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0055768", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873856617", "pmid"=>"23383278", "sgr"=>"84873856617"}, "id"=>"e23316e5-78fa-3f2f-a3e5-c3d7f55adc57", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The evidence for culture in non-human animals has been growing incrementally over the past two decades. However, the ability for cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements, in non-human animals remains debated. Faithful social learning of incremental improvements in technique is considered to be a defining feature of human culture, differentiating human from non-human cultures. This study presents the first experimental evidence for chimpanzees' social transmission of a more efficient tool-use technique invented by a conspecific group member.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The chimpanzees were provided with a straw-tube, and spontaneously demonstrated two different techniques in obtaining juice through a small hole: \"dipping\" and \"straw-sucking\". Both the \"dipping\" and \"straw-sucking\" techniques depended on the use of the same tool (straw-tube) for the same target (juice) accessible from exactly the same location (small hole 1 cm in diameter). Therefore the difference between \"dipping\" and \"straw-sucking\" was only in \"technique\". Although the two techniques differed significantly in their efficiency, their cognitive and perceptuo-motor complexity were comparable. All five chimpanzees who initially performed the \"dipping\" technique switched to using the more efficient \"straw-sucking\" technique upon observing a conspecific or human demonstrate the more proficient alternate \"straw-sucking\" technique.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The social learning mechanism involved here was clearly not local or stimulus enhancement, but imitation or emulation of a tool-use technique. When there is no biologically relevant difference in cognitive or perceptuo-motor complexity between two techniques, and when chimpanzees are dissatisfied with their own technique, chimpanzees may socially learn an improved technique upon close observation of a proficient demonstrator. This study provides important insights into the cognitive basis for cumulative culture in chimpanzees, and also suggests possible conditions in which cumulative cultural evolution could arise even in non-human animals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/basis-cumulative-cultural-evolution-chimpanzees-social-learning-more-efficient-tooluse-technique", "reader_count"=>120, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>32, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>32, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>52, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Philosophy"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>29, "Social Sciences"=>15, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>29}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>52}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>3, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480213", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/480215"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The evidence for culture in non-human animals has been growing incrementally over the past two decades. However, the ability for cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements, in non-human animals remains debated. Faithful social learning of incremental improvements in technique is considered to be a defining feature of human culture, differentiating human from non-human cultures. This study presents the first experimental evidence for chimpanzees' social transmission of a more efficient tool-use technique invented by a conspecific group member.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>The chimpanzees were provided with a straw-tube, and spontaneously demonstrated two different techniques in obtaining juice through a small hole: “dipping” and “straw-sucking”. Both the “dipping” and “straw-sucking” techniques depended on the use of the same tool (straw-tube) for the same target (juice) accessible from exactly the same location (small hole 1 cm in diameter). Therefore the difference between “dipping” and “straw-sucking” was only in “technique”. Although the two techniques differed significantly in their efficiency, their cognitive and perceptuo-motor complexity were comparable. All five chimpanzees who initially performed the “dipping” technique switched to using the more efficient “straw-sucking” technique upon observing a conspecific or human demonstrate the more proficient alternate “straw-sucking” technique.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The social learning mechanism involved here was clearly not local or stimulus enhancement, but imitation or emulation of a tool-use technique. When there is no biologically relevant difference in cognitive or perceptuo-motor complexity between two techniques, and when chimpanzees are dissatisfied with their own technique, chimpanzees may socially learn an improved technique upon close observation of a proficient demonstrator. This study provides important insights into the cognitive basis for cumulative culture in chimpanzees, and also suggests possible conditions in which cumulative cultural evolution could arise even in non-human animals.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cumulative", "tool-use", "technique"], "article_id"=>154964, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Shinya Yamamoto", "Tatyana Humle", "Masayuki Tanaka"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055768.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055768.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Basis_for_Cumulative_Cultural_Evolution_in_Chimpanzees_Social_Learning_of_a_More_Efficient_Tool_Use_Technique__/154964", "title"=>"Basis for Cumulative Cultural Evolution in Chimpanzees: Social Learning of a More Efficient Tool-Use Technique", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 01:22:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499569"], "description"=>"<p>Actually in the scene depicted in this photo, the chimpanzee thereafter retrieved the tube and licked its tip (“dipping”).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["techniques", "entailed"], "article_id"=>170094, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Shinya Yamamoto", "Tatyana Humle", "Masayuki Tanaka"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055768.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Both_the_8220_dipping_8221_and_8220_straw_sucking_8221_techniques_entailed_the_same_tool_straw_tube_the_same_target_juice_and_exactly_the_same_location_small_hole_/170094", "title"=>"Both the “dipping” and “straw-sucking” techniques entailed the same tool (straw-tube), the same target (juice), and exactly the same location (small hole).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 00:01:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/499620"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Individual: condition where each participant was tested individually; Paired: condition where each participant was tested with the conspecific “straw-sucking” demonstrator (1: together in a booth with two juice bottles; 2: separated in two adjacent booths each equipped with a juice bottle); D: “dipping” technique; S: “straw-sucking” technique; “DS”: firstly “dipping” technique, and then “straw-sucking” technique after observing the demonstrator's straw-sucking; -: no try; trials highlighted in grey indicate that a participant observed the demonstrator's “straw-sucking” within a distance of 50 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tube-use", "techniques"], "article_id"=>170142, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Shinya Yamamoto", "Tatyana Humle", "Masayuki Tanaka"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055768.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Switch_in_tube_use_techniques_from_8220_dipping_8221_to_8220_straw_sucking_8221_/170142", "title"=>"Switch in tube-use techniques from “dipping” to “straw-sucking”.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-01-30 00:02:22"}

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Relative Metric

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