The Inter-Group Comparison – Intra-Group Cooperation Hypothesis: Comparisons between Groups Increase Efficiency in Public Goods Provision
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{"title"=>"The Inter-Group Comparison - Intra-Group Cooperation Hypothesis: Comparisons between Groups Increase Efficiency in Public Goods Provision", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Böhm", "scopus_author_id"=>"36674515300"}, {"first_name"=>"Bettina", "last_name"=>"Rockenbach", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602647141"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84873533178", "pui"=>"368304266", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0056152", "pmid"=>"23405262", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873533178", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"3124c83e-4a96-3ac9-bf64-b93c6c86b04d", "abstract"=>"Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants’ level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/intergroup-comparison-intragroup-cooperation-hypothesis-comparisons-between-groups-increase-efficien", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495086"], "description"=>"<p>In model 1 INTRA subjects and intra-groups were treated as random effects, whereas in all other models subjects, intra-groups, and matched groups were treated as random effects. The presented models are superior regarding AIC/BIC to other model specifications (e.g. including interaction terms). REML = restricted maximum likelihood. AIC = Akaike information criterion. BIC = Bayesian information criterion. * <i>p</i><.01, ** <i>p</i><.001, *** <i>p</i><.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "mixed-effects", "models", "predicting"], "article_id"=>165607, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Robert Böhm", "Bettina Rockenbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056152.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameter_estimates_of_mixed_effects_models_predicting_contribution_change_/165607", "title"=>"Parameter estimates of mixed-effects models predicting contribution change.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:33:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495054"], "description"=>"<p>INTRA: intra-group comparison only. INTER: intra- and inter-group comparison. COOP+: public good with <i>n</i> = 3 and individual return from cooperation = 0.7. COOP–: public good with <i>n</i> = 3 and individual return from cooperation = 0.4. Reported are mean values on the level of independent observations. Thus, values of first round contributions are mean values on the individual level. Values of contributions in round 1–10, round 11–20, and overall are mean values on the level of intra-groups (INTRA) or on the level of matched groups (INTER).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deviations", "10", "contributions"], "article_id"=>165575, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Robert Böhm", "Bettina Rockenbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056152.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_values_and_standard_deviations_in_brackets_of_the_first_round_the_first_10_rounds_the_last_10_rounds_and_overall_contributions_by_condition_/165575", "title"=>"Mean values and standard deviations (in brackets) of the first round, the first 10 rounds, the last 10 rounds, and overall contributions by condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:32:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/483190", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/483194"], "description"=>"<div><p>Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants’ level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inter-group", "intra-group", "comparisons", "groups", "goods", "provision"], "article_id"=>156020, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Robert Böhm", "Bettina Rockenbach"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056152.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056152.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Inter_Group_Comparison_Intra_Group_Cooperation_Hypothesis_Comparisons_between_Groups_Increase_Efficiency_in_Public_Goods_Provision__/156020", "title"=>"The Inter-Group Comparison – Intra-Group Cooperation Hypothesis: Comparisons between Groups Increase Efficiency in Public Goods Provision", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:40:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494758"], "description"=>"<p>Areas around mean values indicate 95% confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contributions"], "article_id"=>165281, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Robert Böhm", "Bettina Rockenbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056152.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_contributions_per_round_by_comparison_and_environment_treatments_/165281", "title"=>"Mean contributions per round by comparison and environment treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:28:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494905"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["advantageous", "disadvantageous", "intra-", "inter-group"], "article_id"=>165431, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Robert Böhm", "Bettina Rockenbach"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056152.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_contribution_change_by_advantageous_and_disadvantageous_intra_and_inter_group_comparison_/165431", "title"=>"Mean contribution change by advantageous and disadvantageous intra- and inter-group comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-06 01:30:31"}

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Relative Metric

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