Propulsion in Cubomedusae: Mechanisms and Utility
Publication Date
February 20, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Sean P. Colin, John H. Costello, Kakani Katija, Jamie Seymour, et al
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
e56393
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0056393
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23437122
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3577916
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23437122
Web of Science
000315184200066
Scopus
84874264996
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/propulsion-cubomedusae-mechanisms-utility
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Propulsion in Cubomedusae: Mechanisms and Utility", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sean P.", "last_name"=>"Colin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005503482"}, {"first_name"=>"John H.", "last_name"=>"Costello", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201995961"}, {"first_name"=>"Kakani", "last_name"=>"Katija", "scopus_author_id"=>"23018409300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jamie", "last_name"=>"Seymour", "scopus_author_id"=>"55897433300"}, {"first_name"=>"Kristen", "last_name"=>"Kiefer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55604447200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874264996", "pui"=>"368400295", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0056393", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84874264996", "pmid"=>"23437122"}, "id"=>"8875860a-f4fe-36a1-9423-a42039ac1ed0", "abstract"=>"Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/propulsion-cubomedusae-mechanisms-utility", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957466"], "description"=>"<p>Flow emerging from the bell of the small medusa is characterized a simple jet (i.e.; jet of fluid and a single vortex ring). Flow generated by the large medusa is more complex with the stopping vortex from the previous swim cycle interacting with the starting vortex generated during bell contraction and flow entrained from the bell margin by the velarium (inset) contributing to the starting vortex. Inset: close-up of entrained flow in region adjacent to velarium. Note that the maximum velocities (red) are oriented toward the inflexion point of the velarium.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contour", "velocity", "vector", "contraction"], "article_id"=>627621, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vorticity_contour_and_velocity_vector_plot_of_flow_during_maximum_contraction_for_a_small_and_large_Chiropsella_bronzie_/627621", "title"=>"Vorticity contour and velocity vector plot of flow during maximum contraction for a small and large <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:57:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957468"], "description"=>"<p>As the size of <i>Chiropsella</i> increased the contribution of the entrained flow to the starting vortex increased. The contribution of the entrained flow for <i>Chironex</i> was large at all sizes but also increased with bell diameter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flux", "entrained", "velarium"], "article_id"=>627623, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Momentum_flux_A_and_B_and_relative_momentum_flux_C_and_D_of_fluid_entrained_at_the_velarium_and_the_jet_flow_from_the_bell_/627623", "title"=>"Momentum flux (A and B) and relative momentum flux (C and D) of fluid entrained at the velarium and the jet flow from the bell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:58:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957473"], "description"=>"<p>Two different models of drag were used: White (circles) and Hoerner (diamonds). Inset: Changes in Reynolds number of flow around the bell with medusan diameter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["medusan", "froude"], "article_id"=>627626, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_medusan_size_on_the_Froude_efficiency_of_Chiropsella_bronzie_open_symbols_and_Chironex_fleckeri_closed_symbols_/627626", "title"=>"Effect of medusan size on the Froude efficiency of <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i> (open symbols) and <i>Chironex fleckeri</i> (closed symbols).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:59:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957478"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The effect of medusan size on turning angle during bell contraction and expansion. (B) The effect of total turn magnitude on turning angle during bell contraction and expansion. (C) The effect of total turn magnitude on turning rate during contraction and expansion. The difference in turning rate (rate<sub>expansion</sub> – rate<sub>contraction</sub>) was calculated to illustrate the relative difference between the two phases. Positive versus negative values indicate the bell mostly turned during expansion versus contraction, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["turning", "contraction"], "article_id"=>627628, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparision_of_turning_dynamics_during_bell_contraction_and_expansion_of_Chiropsella_bronzie_circles_and_Chironex_fleckeri_diamonds_/627628", "title"=>"Comparision of turning dynamics during bell contraction and expansion of <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i> (circles) and <i>Chironex fleckeri</i> (diamonds).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 15:00:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957482"], "description"=>"<p>The starting vortex is formed during bell contraction and the stopping is formed during bell expansion. (A) Path traveled by the vortex ring core on the inside (blue) and the outside (red) of turn during turning and straight swimming. (B) Circulation of the starting and stopping vortex rings on the inside and outside of the turn.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vortices", "turning"], "article_id"=>627629, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_wake_vortices_during_turning_versus_straight_swimming_/627629", "title"=>"Characterization of wake vortices during turning versus straight swimming.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 15:01:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957487"], "description"=>"<p>For velocity data jetting species include: <i>Aglantha digitale</i> (Δ), <i>Leuckartiara</i> sp.(#), <i>Neoturris</i> sp.(○), <i>Sarsia tubulosa</i> (□); rowing species include: <i>Cassiopea</i> sp.(), <i>Cotylorhiza sp</i> (▴), <i>Sandaria</i> sp. (▾), <i>Chrysaora quincirrha</i> (•), <i>Aurelia aurita</i> (▪), <i>Phyllorhiza punctata</i> (*), <i>Mastigias papua</i> (–), <i>Aequorea victoria</i> (&), <i>Mitrocoma cellularia</i>(x), <i>Phialidium gregarium</i> (♂), Solmissus (I), <i>Craspedacusta sowerbyi</i> (X); cubomedusae: <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i> (•) and <i>Chironex fleckeri</i> (▪).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["froude", "jetting", "rowing", "cubomedusae"], "article_id"=>627633, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_swimming_speed_A_and_Froude_efficiency_B_among_jetting_open_symbols_rowing_grey_symbols_and_cubomedusae_black_symbols_/627633", "title"=>"Comparison of swimming speed (A) and Froude efficiency (B) among jetting (open symbols), rowing (grey symbols) and cubomedusae (black symbols).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 15:02:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957446"], "description"=>"<p>Fineness ratio illustrates changes in bell shape throughout the swim cycle where peak fineness corresponds with maximum bell contraction. Peak velocities are achieved during bell contraction but there is a small increase in velocity also observed at end of bell expansion. Regardless of size, the medusae maintain continuous forward progress throughout the pulse cycle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kinematics"], "article_id"=>627602, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Swimming_kinematics_of_small_a_c_and_g_i_and_large_d_f_and_j_l_Chiropsella_bronzie_and_Chironex_fleckeri_/627602", "title"=>"Swimming kinematics of small (a–c and g–i) and large (d–f and j–l) <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i> and <i>Chironex fleckeri</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:53:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957451"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean (± st. dev.) of three consecutive swimming cycles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "biophysics", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>627606, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_in_swimming_performance_with_size_/627606", "title"=>"Change in swimming performance with size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:54:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957453"], "description"=>"<p>Lengths indicated in cm. for each figure represent maximum bell diameters during relaxation. Values represent mean (± st. dev.) diameters among three consecutive swimming cycles. Sketches are bell outlines during maximum expansion (black) and contraction (grey) for the smallest and largest individual examined of each species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diameter", "sections", "sized"], "article_id"=>627608, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_change_in_diameter_of_bell_sections_for_different_sized_Chiropsella_bronzie_and_Chironex_fleckeri_/627608", "title"=>"Percent change in diameter of bell sections for different sized <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i> and <i>Chironex fleckeri</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:54:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957458"], "description"=>"<p>Black outline is the initial bell shape and white is the final shape at maximum bell contraction. Only half of the bell is shown with the apex on the bottom and bell margin along the top. Velarium of the smaller medusae have simple outpocketing kinematics while the velarium of larger medusae have more complex kinematics and greater inflexions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["velarium", "intervals", "contraction"], "article_id"=>627613, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Outlines_of_the_bell_and_velarium_at_equal_time_intervals_during_bell_contraction_for_small_and_large_Chironex_fleckeri_and_Chiropsella_bronzie_/627613", "title"=>"Outlines of the bell and velarium at equal time intervals during bell contraction for small and large <i>Chironex fleckeri</i> and <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:55:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/957460"], "description"=>"<p>Radius of curvature is inversely related to inflexion of a surface; flattened or low inflexion surfaces possess high radii of curvature whereas highly curved or flexed surfaces are characterized by low radii of curvature. Small cubomedusae exhibit little bending of the velarium during bell contraction and consequently have high normalized radii of curvature. In contrast, as cubomedusae increase in bell diameter, the velarium bends more extensively during bell contraction and results in lower normalized radii of curvature.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radius", "curvature", "velarium", "contraction"], "article_id"=>627615, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Neuroscience", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Sean P. Colin", "John H. Costello", "Kakani Katija", "Jamie Seymour", "Kristen Kiefer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056393.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>307, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_radius_of_curvature_normalized_by_bell_diameter_of_the_velarium_at_maximum_bell_contraction_of_Chiropsella_bronzie_A_and_Chironex_fleckeri_B_/627615", "title"=>"Normalized radius of curvature (normalized by bell diameter) of the velarium at maximum bell contraction of <i>Chiropsella bronzie</i> (A) and <i>Chironex fleckeri</i> (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 14:55:57"}

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Relative Metric

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