Mapping the Global Emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus
Publication Date
February 27, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Deanna H. Olson, David M. Aanensen, Kathryn L. Ronnenberg, Christopher I. Powell, et al
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
e56802
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0056802
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23463502
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584086
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23463502
Web of Science
000315519000039
Scopus
84874546486
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/mapping-global-emergence-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-3
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Mapping the Global Emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Deanna H.", "last_name"=>"Olson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402201403"}, {"first_name"=>"David M.", "last_name"=>"Aanensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507460526"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathryn L.", "last_name"=>"Ronnenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"55612570900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher I.", "last_name"=>"Powell", "scopus_author_id"=>"55612729500"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan F.", "last_name"=>"Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"56307231500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon", "last_name"=>"Bielby", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508080232"}, {"first_name"=>"Trenton W.J.", "last_name"=>"Garner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005973727"}, {"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Weaver", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007061635"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew C.", "last_name"=>"Fisher", "scopus_author_id"=>"55936464000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23463502", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0056802", "sgr"=>"84874546486", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874546486", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368445521"}, "id"=>"8998b59c-5eda-32ff-9609-b2856ff7e64c", "abstract"=>"The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide Bd presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1) spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2) relationships between Bd occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among Bd occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3) patterns of environmental correlates with Bd, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae) separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A.) scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42%) amphibian species. We show that detected Bd infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of Bd. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of Bd detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into Bd-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of Bd, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation efforts. We provide recommendations for adaptive management to enhance the database utility and relevance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mapping-global-emergence-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-3", "reader_count"=>390, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>21, "Researcher"=>58, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>66, "Student > Postgraduate"=>21, "Student > Master"=>84, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>92, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>21, "Researcher"=>58, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>66, "Student > Postgraduate"=>21, "Student > Master"=>84, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>92, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>275, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>51, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Design"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3, "Linguistics"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>51}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>275}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>15, "Brazil"=>8, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Mexico"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>14}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972234"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed lines indicate 95% confidence interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locations", "enigmatic", "amphibian", "declines", "positively", "richness", "gaa", "occurrence", "chytrid", "modeled", "logistic"], "article_id"=>640965, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Deanna H. Olson", "David M. Aanensen", "Kathryn L. Ronnenberg", "Christopher I. Powell", "Susan F. Walker", "Jon Bielby", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "George Weaver", "Matthew C. Fisher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_locations_with_enigmatic_amphibian_declines_were_positively_associated_with_amphibian_species_richness_data_from_GAA_7_and_this_relationship_increased_with_the_occurrence_of_the_amphibian_chytrid_fungus_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_as_modeled_wi/640965", "title"=>"Global locations with enigmatic amphibian declines were positively associated with amphibian species richness (data from GAA [<b>7</b>]), and this relationship increased with the occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus, <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i>, as modeled with logistic regression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 10:11:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972237"], "description"=>"<p>Odds of <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> (<i>Bd</i>) detection in amphibians derived from a regression model using data from <i>Bd</i>-maps.net from all species combined (data snapshot July 2010; N = 3,733 locations).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detection", "amphibians", "derived", "regression", "snapshot", "july"], "article_id"=>640967, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Deanna H. Olson", "David M. Aanensen", "Kathryn L. Ronnenberg", "Christopher I. Powell", "Susan F. Walker", "Jon Bielby", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "George Weaver", "Matthew C. Fisher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Odds_of_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_Bd_detection_in_amphibians_derived_from_a_regression_model_using_data_from_Bd_maps_net_from_all_species_combined_data_snapshot_July_2010_N_3_733_locations_/640967", "title"=>"Odds of <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> (<i>Bd</i>) detection in amphibians derived from a regression model using data from <i>Bd</i>-maps.net from all species combined (data snapshot July 2010; N = 3,733 locations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 10:11:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972240"], "description"=>"<p>The global model using data from all species combined is shown (A), as well as subsets of the world data for species within the amphibian families Bufonidae (B), Hylidae (C), and Ranidae (D). Although these map projections depict the odds of <i>Bd</i> detection at the world scale, it should be noted that amphibians do not occur everywhere in the world, and in particular, the three amphibian families (B,C,D) are not native to all regions world-wide. Significant model parameters differed among models and included landscape-scale site attributes including climate metrics and biotic factors, such as biome or amphibian species richness (see text). Gaps in the mapped models are due to a lack of species richness data, or amphibian absence, for certain regions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maps", "detection", "amphibians", "derived", "regression"], "article_id"=>640969, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Deanna H. Olson", "David M. Aanensen", "Kathryn L. Ronnenberg", "Christopher I. Powell", "Susan F. Walker", "Jon Bielby", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "George Weaver", "Matthew C. Fisher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extrapolated_global_maps_of_the_odds_of_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_Bd_detection_in_amphibians_derived_from_regression_models_/640969", "title"=>"Extrapolated global maps of the odds of <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> (<i>Bd</i>) detection in amphibians derived from regression models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 10:12:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972244", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972246", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972249", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972250", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972251", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972255", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972264", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972270", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972277"], "description"=>"<div><p>The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> (<i>Bd</i>) is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide <i>Bd</i> presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1) spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2) relationships between <i>Bd</i> occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among <i>Bd</i> occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3) patterns of environmental correlates with <i>Bd</i>, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae) separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A.) scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42%) amphibian species. We show that detected <i>Bd</i> infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of <i>Bd</i>. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of <i>Bd</i> detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into <i>Bd</i>-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of <i>Bd</i>, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation efforts. We provide recommendations for adaptive management to enhance the database utility and relevance.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emergence", "amphibian", "chytrid", "fungus"], "article_id"=>640973, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Deanna H. Olson", "David M. Aanensen", "Kathryn L. Ronnenberg", "Christopher I. Powell", "Susan F. Walker", "Jon Bielby", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "George Weaver", "Matthew C. Fisher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mapping_the_Global_Emergence_of_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_the_Amphibian_Chytrid_Fungus__/640973", "title"=>"Mapping the Global Emergence of <em>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</em>, the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 10:13:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1005553"], "description"=>"<p>Individual biome coefficients represent additive shifts in the <i>Bd</i>-occurrence odds ratio, whereas other coefficients represent multiplicative changes in odds of detecting <i>Bd</i>. Logistic regression with likelihood ratio test statistic (Chi<sup>2</sup>) was used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "occurrence", "wild-occurring", "amphibians", "having", "locations"], "article_id"=>666172, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Deanna H. Olson", "David M. Aanensen", "Kathryn L. Ronnenberg", "Christopher I. Powell", "Susan F. Walker", "Jon Bielby", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "George Weaver", "Matthew C. Fisher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significant_parameters_in_the_regression_model_using_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_Bd_occurrence_and_data_from_wild_occurring_amphibians_having_precise_locations_in_the_global_Bd_database_N_3_733_locations_/666172", "title"=>"Significant parameters in the regression model using <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> (<i>Bd</i>) occurrence and data from wild-occurring amphibians having precise locations in the global <i>Bd</i> database (N = 3,733 locations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-27 01:42:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1005576"], "description"=>"<p>Prev. = Prevalence: <i>Bd</i> detected/Total sampled. * denotes a significant deviation from the expected level of infection in that family. ‘NSD’ = not significant. ‘NA’ denotes that insufficient species had been sampled in that family to detect a significant deviation from a random level of infection. Power-analyses using binomial tests indicated that with six species sampled in a Family, there was sufficient power to detect a deviation in either direction. ‘<i>Bd</i> not detected’ data have limitations, as indicated in Supplemental Information. Notes on taxonomic names used are provided in Supplemental Information. Detections in table updated as of January 2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detections", "amphibian", "randomisation", "sampled", "over-", "compared", "prevalence"], "article_id"=>666195, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Deanna H. Olson", "David M. Aanensen", "Kathryn L. Ronnenberg", "Christopher I. Powell", "Susan F. Walker", "Jon Bielby", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "George Weaver", "Matthew C. Fisher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numbers_of_species_with_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_Bd_detections_by_amphibian_family_and_results_of_randomisation_tests_see_Materials_and_Methods_section_to_determine_whether_each_sampled_amphibian_family_was_over_or_under_infected_compared_to_what_w/666195", "title"=>"Numbers of species with <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> (<i>Bd</i>) detections by amphibian family, and results of randomisation tests (see Materials and Methods section) to determine whether each sampled amphibian family was over- or under-infected, compared to what we would expect by chance given an overall prevalence of 508/1055 species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-27 01:43:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1005597"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers of amphibian species and families with <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> detections as of January 2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amphibian", "detections", "january"], "article_id"=>666217, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Deanna H. Olson", "David M. Aanensen", "Kathryn L. Ronnenberg", "Christopher I. Powell", "Susan F. Walker", "Jon Bielby", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "George Weaver", "Matthew C. Fisher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056802.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numbers_of_amphibian_species_and_families_with_Batrachochytrium_dendrobatidis_detections_as_of_January_2011_/666217", "title"=>"Numbers of amphibian species and families with <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> detections as of January 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-27 01:43:37"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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