Further Explorations of the Facing Bias in Biological Motion Perception: Perspective Cues, Observer Sex, and Response Times
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{"title"=>"Further Explorations of the Facing Bias in Biological Motion Perception: Perspective Cues, Observer Sex, and Response Times", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ben", "last_name"=>"Schouten", "scopus_author_id"=>"24759469600"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex", "last_name"=>"Davila", "scopus_author_id"=>"55612852000"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl", "last_name"=>"Verfaillie", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003722637"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368445510", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0056978", "sgr"=>"84874534436", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874534436", "pmid"=>"23468898"}, "id"=>"07bbca01-83d3-319c-ab9e-48bc5fca18e4", "abstract"=>"The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues) that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/further-explorations-facing-bias-biological-motion-perception-perspective-cues-observer-sex-response", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972750"], "description"=>"<p>Data of 11 females and 11 males. The more negative the field of view angle (perspective level) is, the stronger is the perspective cue that the point-light figure is facing away from the viewer. The higher the field of view angle is, the stronger the perspective cue is that the point-light figure is facing towards the viewers. Local shape and size of the dots of the point-light figures were kept constant across perspective levels. Even without local shape and size cues observers seem to easily pick up on the remaining position and motion cues: Mean proportions of FTV responses gradually drop as a function of field of view angle. The effect is stronger for male (blue triangles pointing downwards) than for female observers (red triangles pointing upwards). Female observers respond differently to the same stimuli than male observers. This pattern of results is consistent with the earlier observed ‘observer sex effect’ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0056978#pone.0056978-Schouten1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses"], "article_id"=>641344, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ben Schouten", "Alex Davila", "Karl Verfaillie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056978.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportions_of_8216_facing_the_viewer_8217_FTV_responses_as_a_function_of_field_of_view_angle_/641344", "title"=>"Proportions of ‘facing the viewer’ (FTV) responses as a function of field of view angle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 11:47:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/972754"], "description"=>"<p>Data of 11 females and 11 males. <b>A</b>. Mean reaction times generally increase as a function of field of view angle. The clearer the point-light figure is facing the viewer (strongly negative field of view angles), the quicker observers are to respond. The increase in reaction time as a function of field of view angle saturates or even reverses to a slight decrease for walkers carrying perspective cues that convincingly signal the walker to be ‘facing away’. It appears as if female observers have shorter response times than male observers, mainly for figures containing ‘facing away’ perspective cues. <b>B</b>. The box plots, however, clarify that the somewhat larger mean for male compared to female observers (grey circles) resulted from outliers (red crosses) in the data of the male observers. The red horizontal lines in the middle of the boxes indicate the median. The bottom of the box indicates the 25 th percentile. The top of the box represents the 75 th percentile. The T-bars or whiskers extend to 1.5 times the height of the box or, if no observation has a value in that range, to the minimum or maximum values. The notches of the box plots (triangles pointing inwards), indicating the 95% confidence interval around the median, overlap: Median reaction times of male and female observers do not differ.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["boxplots"], "article_id"=>641345, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ben Schouten", "Alex Davila", "Karl Verfaillie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056978.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>113, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reaction_time_as_a_function_of_perspective_cue_and_boxplots_for_male_and_female_observers_/641345", "title"=>"Reaction time as a function of perspective cue and boxplots for male and female observers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 11:48:09"}

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Relative Metric

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