FcStuA from Fusarium culmorum Controls Wheat Foot and Root Rot in a Toxin Dispensable Manner
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{"title"=>"FcStuA from Fusarium culmorum Controls Wheat Foot and Root Rot in a Toxin Dispensable Manner", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matias", "last_name"=>"Pasquali", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004328784"}, {"first_name"=>"Francesca", "last_name"=>"Spanu", "scopus_author_id"=>"51261473300"}, {"first_name"=>"Barbara", "last_name"=>"Scherm", "scopus_author_id"=>"12784544200"}, {"first_name"=>"Virgilio", "last_name"=>"Balmas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801664167"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucien", "last_name"=>"Hoffmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"55807974000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kim E.", "last_name"=>"Hammond-Kosack", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603832654"}, {"first_name"=>"Marco", "last_name"=>"Beyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102707073"}, {"first_name"=>"Quirico", "last_name"=>"Migheli", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701602340"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874289544", "sgr"=>"84874289544", "pui"=>"368409613", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23451228", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0057429"}, "id"=>"0a44a9ee-cfdf-389a-ace1-c9a10aca6b0d", "abstract"=>"Fusarium culmorum is one of the most harmful pathogens of durum wheat and is the causal agent of foot and root rot (FRR) disease. F. culmorum produces the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) that is involved in the pathogenic process. The role of the gene FcStuA, a StuA ortholog protein with an APSES domain sharing 98.5% homology to the FgStuA protein (FGSG10129), was determined by functional characterisation of deletion mutants obtained from two F. culmorum wild-type strains, FcUk99 (a highly pathogenic DON producer) and Fc233B (unable to produce toxin and with a mild pathogenic behavior). The ΔFcStuA mutants originating from both strains showed common phenotypic characters including stunted vegetative growth, loss of hydrophobicity of the mycelium, altered pigmentation, decreased activity of polygalacturonic enzymes and catalases, altered and reduced conidiation, delayed conidial germination patterns and complete loss of pathogenicity towards wheat stem base/root tissue. Glycolytic process efficiency [measured as growth on glucose as sole carbon (C) source] was strongly impaired and growth was partially restored on glutamic acid. Growth on pectin-like sources ranked in between glucose and glutamic acid with the following order (the lowest to the highest growth): beechwood xylan, sugarbeet arabinan, polygalacturonic acid, citrus pectin, apple pectin, potato azogalactan. DON production in the mutants originating from FcUK99 strain was significantly decreased (−95%) in vitro. Moreover, both sets of mutants were unable to colonise non-cereal plant tissues, i.e. apple and tomato fruits and potato tubers. No differences between mutants, ectopic and wild-type strains were observed concerning the level of resistance towards four fungicides belonging to three classes, the demethylase inhibitors epoxiconazole and tebuconzole, the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor isopyrazam and the cytochrome bc1 inhibitor trifloxystrobin. StuA, given its multiple functions in cell regulation and pathogenicity control, is proposed as a potential target for novel disease management strategies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fcstua-fusarium-culmorum-controls-wheat-foot-root-rot-toxin-dispensable-manner", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968929"], "description"=>"<p>A: 21-d old durum wheat cv Claudio seedlings infected with Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutants, wild types and ectopics and mock inoculated (test). No FRR symptoms were detected on the plants derived from the seeds inoculated with the mutants (S19, S20, S12 and S13). B: Spike of durum wheat cv Simeto infected with FcUK99, with an ectopic transformant or with the four independent Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutants. No symptoms are visible on the mutant inoculated spikes. Photographs were taken 14 days post inoculation. C: Testing the ability for the same set of fungal strains to colonise three different plant tissues: apple (1), potato (2) and tomato (3). Cut or wounded surfaces were inoculated with <i>StuA</i> deleted mutants (S12, S13, S19), ectopic transformants (S2 and S20) or the wild-type strains (FcUK99 and Fc233B). Photographs were taken at either 4 days post inoculation (dpi) (apple and tomato) or 7 dpi (potato).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutant", "strains", "ectopic", "transformants"], "article_id"=>638377, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathogenicity_of_the_Fusarium_culmorum_wild_type_and_FcStuA_mutant_strains_and_ectopic_transformants_on_various_plant_species_and_tissue_types_/638377", "title"=>"Pathogenicity of the <i>Fusarium culmorum</i> wild type and Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutant strains and ectopic transformants on various plant species and tissue types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:39:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968933"], "description"=>"<p>These ZEISS EVO LS images reveal the appearance of the surface of a seed of durum wheat placed over a mycelium disk of either wild-type <i>Fusarium culmorum</i> FcUK99 (A and B) or its ΔFc<i>StuA</i> mutant (C and D), 3 days after incubation at 25°C. During observation the samples were subjected to the following conditions: temperature 2°C, humidity 85% and pressure 600 Pa. A and C panel show an apical seed view. B and D show a detail of the mycelium surrounding the seed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electron", "microscope", "durum", "seeds", "wild-type", "mutant"], "article_id"=>638381, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scanning_electron_microscope_analysis_of_the_infection_of_durum_wheat_seeds_by_Fusarium_culmorum_wild_type_and_FcStuA_mutant_strains_/638381", "title"=>"Scanning electron microscope analysis of the infection of durum wheat seeds by <i>Fusarium culmorum</i> wild-type and Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutant strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:40:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968940"], "description"=>"<p>Seed viability after 3 days in the dark at 25°C on water agar (germination) after previous plug inoculation for 3 days with the two wild types (FcUK99 and Fc233B), the mutants (S12, S13 and S19), the ectopic transformants (S2 and S20) and a mock control inoculated with 10 µL water (W). Seeds were washed with NaClO before plating to eliminate external mycelium.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["types", "ectopic", "transformants", "penetrate", "seeds", "seedling", "mutants"], "article_id"=>638388, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fusarium_culmorum_wild_types_and_ectopic_transformants_penetrate_into_wheat_seeds_and_kill_the_seedling_while_FcStuA_mutants_are_unable_to_penetrate_the_seed_/638388", "title"=>"<i>Fusarium culmorum</i> wild types and ectopic transformants penetrate into wheat seeds and kill the seedling while Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutants are unable to penetrate the seed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:41:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968944"], "description"=>"<p>Sporodochia formation on SNA after 18 days growth. A: FcUK99, B: Fc233B; C: S12 (mutant obtained from A); D: S19 (mutant obtained from D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutants"], "article_id"=>638392, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FcStuA_mutants_of_Fusarium_culmorum_are_unable_to_produce_sporodochia_/638392", "title"=>"Δ<i> </i>FcStuA mutants of <i>Fusarium culmorum</i> are unable to produce sporodochia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:42:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968948"], "description"=>"<p>Conidiogenesis by <i>StuA</i> deletion mutants, ectopic transformants and wild-type strains was observed with a light microscope (OLYMPUS BX41). Macroconidia of the wild-type FcUK99 strain (A) and the ectopic S20 strain (B) are formed from monophialides on branched conidiophores. Macroconidia of the Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutant strains spores are generated directly from hyphae as in S12 and S13 (<i>StuA</i> mutants). (B) The same observations were made for <i>FcStuA</i> deletion mutant S19 obtained from strain Fc233B. Photos were taken with MOTICAM 2500 5.O MP live resolution (Motic). Hyphal diameter is smaller in the mutant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asexual", "wild-type", "mutant", "strains"], "article_id"=>638396, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_in_vitro_comparison_of_the_asexual_development_of_the_wild_type_and_FcStuA_mutant_strains_of_Fusarium_culmorum_/638396", "title"=>"An <i>in vitro</i> comparison of the asexual development of the wild-type and Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutant strains of <i>Fusarium culmorum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968953"], "description"=>"<p>Linear phase of degradation of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> over time inferred by reduced light absorbance at 240 nm. Ten microliter of a spore suspension (10<sup>6</sup> mL<sup>−1</sup>) of FcUK99 and Δ<i>FcStuA</i> S12 (A) and Fc233B and Δ<i>FcStuA</i> S19 were suspended in a solution of 3.5 mM H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. Absorbance of the solution was read every minute for a total of 80 min. Results show that wild types catalyse H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> more efficiently than Δ<i>FcStuA</i> respective mutants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reduced", "mutants"], "article_id"=>638401, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catalase_activity_is_reduced_in_the_FcStuA_mutants_of_Fusarium_culmorum_/638401", "title"=>"Catalase activity is reduced in the Δ<i>FcStuA</i> mutants of <i>Fusarium culmorum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:44:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968955"], "description"=>"<p>Colony diameter in mm and standard deviation are indicated on the left and refer to the average of 3 biological replicates. The graph indicates the effect of carbon source on the growth ratio (mutant / wild type) after 5 days of growth on Petri dishes containing glucose, beechwood xylan, sugar beet arabinan, polygalacturonic acid, citrus pectin, apple pectin, potato azo-galactan or glutamic acid as a sole carbon source. Bars labelled with the same letter are not significantly different according to Tukey's post hoc test p<0.05. Bars represent SDs of the ratios (within each strain) of three biological replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutants", "ectopic", "strains", "carbon", "sources"], "article_id"=>638403, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_wild_types_mutants_and_ectopic_strains_on_different_carbon_sources_obtained_from_various_plant_origins_/638403", "title"=>"Growth of wild types, mutants and ectopic strains on different carbon sources obtained from various plant origins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:45:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968957"], "description"=>"<p>The optical density of liquid cultures of the <i>Fusarium culmorum</i> wild type strain FcUK99, an ectopic and <i>FcStuA</i> deficient strains (S9, S12, S13) growing in 200 µL of 12.5% (w/w) potato dextrose broth when augmented with different concentrations of fungicides (A) epoxiconazole, (B) isopyrazam, (C) tebuconazole, or (D) trifloxystrobin. The optical density measurements were made after 5 days of incubation at 120 rpm and 22°C in the dark. An optical density close to 100% indicates no sensitivity to the fungicide, whilst an optical density close to 0% full inhibition. Error bars represent the standard error of 3 replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogenic", "wild-type", "ectopic", "deletion", "mutants"], "article_id"=>638405, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_sensitivity_of_the_highly_pathogenic_wild_type_FcUK99_ectopic_and_FcStuA_deletion_mutants_to_various_fungicides_/638405", "title"=>"The sensitivity of the highly pathogenic wild-type FcUK99, ectopic and <i>FcStuA</i> deletion mutants to various fungicides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:46:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968959"], "description"=>"<p>Optical density of the <i>Fusarium culmorum</i> wild-type strain Fc233B, an ectopic (S20) and a <i>FcStuA</i> deficient strain (S19) in liquid cultures (200 µL, medium: 12.5% (w/w) potato dextrose broth) as affected by epoxiconazole (A), isopyrazam (B), tebuconazole (C), or trifloxystrobin (D) concentration after 5 days of incubation at 120 rpm and 22°C in the dark. An optical density close to 100% indicates no sensitivity to the fungicide, whilst an optical density close to 0% full inhibition. Error bars represent the standard error of 3 replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mildly", "pathogenic", "wild-type", "ectopic", "deficient", "strains"], "article_id"=>638407, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_sensitivity_of_the_mildly_pathogenic_wild_type_Fc233B_ectopic_and_FcStuA_deficient_strains_to_various_fungicides_/638407", "title"=>"The sensitivity of the mildly pathogenic wild-type Fc233B, ectopic and <i>FcStuA</i> deficient strains to various fungicides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:46:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968965", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/968969"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Fusarium culmorum</i> is one of the most harmful pathogens of durum wheat and is the causal agent of foot and root rot (FRR) disease. <i>F. culmorum</i> produces the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) that is involved in the pathogenic process. The role of the gene <i>FcStuA</i>, a StuA ortholog protein with an APSES domain sharing 98.5% homology to the <i>FgStuA</i> protein (FGSG10129), was determined by functional characterisation of deletion mutants obtained from two <i>F. culmorum</i> wild-type strains, FcUk99 (a highly pathogenic DON producer) and Fc233B (unable to produce toxin and with a mild pathogenic behavior). The <i>ΔFcStuA</i> mutants originating from both strains showed common phenotypic characters including stunted vegetative growth, loss of hydrophobicity of the mycelium, altered pigmentation, decreased activity of polygalacturonic enzymes and catalases, altered and reduced conidiation, delayed conidial germination patterns and complete loss of pathogenicity towards wheat stem base/root tissue. Glycolytic process efficiency [measured as growth on glucose as sole carbon (C) source] was strongly impaired and growth was partially restored on glutamic acid. Growth on pectin-like sources ranked in between glucose and glutamic acid with the following order (the lowest to the highest growth): beechwood xylan, sugarbeet arabinan, polygalacturonic acid, citrus pectin, apple pectin, potato azogalactan. DON production in the mutants originating from FcUK99 strain was significantly decreased (−95%) <i>in vitro</i>. Moreover, both sets of mutants were unable to colonise non-cereal plant tissues, i.e. apple and tomato fruits and potato tubers. No differences between mutants, ectopic and wild-type strains were observed concerning the level of resistance towards four fungicides belonging to three classes, the demethylase inhibitors epoxiconazole and tebuconzole, the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor isopyrazam and the cytochrome bc1 inhibitor trifloxystrobin. <i>StuA</i>, given its multiple functions in cell regulation and pathogenicity control, is proposed as a potential target for novel disease management strategies.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["controls", "rot", "toxin", "dispensable", "manner"], "article_id"=>638409, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FcStuA_from_Fusarium_culmorum_Controls_Wheat_Foot_and_Root_Rot_in_a_Toxin_Dispensable_Manner__/638409", "title"=>"<em>FcStuA</em> from <em>Fusarium culmorum</em> Controls Wheat Foot and Root Rot in a Toxin Dispensable Manner", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-23 11:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1005258"], "description"=>"<p>Primer sequences used to obtain the transforming constructs and to identify mutants by PCR and Southern blotting.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sequences", "transforming", "constructs", "mutants", "pcr"], "article_id"=>665878, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primer_sequences_used_to_obtain_the_transforming_constructs_and_to_identify_mutants_by_PCR_and_Southern_blotting_/665878", "title"=>"Primer sequences used to obtain the transforming constructs and to identify mutants by PCR and Southern blotting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-22 01:37:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1005281"], "description"=>"<p>Foot and root rot severity measured with McKinney index (0–100) <sup>a</sup> and emergence <sup>b</sup> tested on durum wheat cv Claudio; number of spikes infected at 14 days above the point of inoculation <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429#pone.0057429-Balmas1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a><sup>c</sup> ; hydrophobicity of the mycelium measured in seconds needed before absorption of a 20 µ l water drop<sup>d</sup>; millions of conidia produced in CMC medium inoculated with 10<sup>3</sup> conidia after 5 days growth<sup>e</sup>; percentage of germination of conidia after 4 hours on CM<sup>f</sup>; percentage of germinating conidia at 8 hrs (all mutants showed a delayed germination but no significant difference in the number of germinating conidia was observed)<sup>g</sup>; DON production in toxin inducing liquid medium corrected for mg of dry weight after 8 days culturing<sup>h</sup>; polygalacturonase enzyme activity measured with a diffusion assay on agarose gel (“cup plate”); measurements of pectolytic enzyme activity in diameter (mm) corrected by dry fungal biomass (mg)<sup>i</sup>. * P<0.01 by Tukey's post-hoc test.</p><p>All values are followed by SD. Significant differences compared to respective wild type are marked with an asterisk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures", "strains"], "article_id"=>665901, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Microbiology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Matias Pasquali", "Francesca Spanu", "Barbara Scherm", "Virgilio Balmas", "Lucien Hoffmann", "Kim E. Hammond-Kosack", "Marco Beyer", "Quirico Migheli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057429.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phenotypic_measures_of_the_strains_used_in_this_study_/665901", "title"=>"Phenotypic measures of the strains used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-22 01:38:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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