Δ-6 Desaturase Substrate Competition: Dietary Linoleic Acid (18∶2n-6) Has Only Trivial Effects on α-Linolenic Acid (18∶3n-3) Bioconversion in the Teleost Rainbow Trout
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{"title"=>"Δ-6 Desaturase Substrate Competition: Dietary Linoleic Acid (18:2n-6) Has Only Trivial Effects on α-Linolenic Acid (18:3n-3) Bioconversion in the Teleost Rainbow Trout", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"James A.", "last_name"=>"Emery", "scopus_author_id"=>"55612947700"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen", "last_name"=>"Hermon", "scopus_author_id"=>"26023295400"}, {"first_name"=>"Noor K.A.", "last_name"=>"Hamid", "scopus_author_id"=>"55612626200"}, {"first_name"=>"John A.", "last_name"=>"Donald", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102358473"}, {"first_name"=>"Giovanni M.", "last_name"=>"Turchini", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602298050"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874508533", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0057463", "sgr"=>"84874508533", "pmid"=>"23460861", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368445682"}, "id"=>"3a6a9503-6a76-3cb8-91af-ed6d5c57ecde", "abstract"=>"It is generally accepted that, in vertebrates, omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compete for Δ-6 desaturase enzyme in order to be bioconverted into long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA). However, recent studies into teleost fatty acid metabolism suggest that these metabolic processes may not conform entirely to what has been previously observed in mammals and other animal models. Recent work on rainbow trout has led us to question specifically if linoleic acid (LA, 18∶2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18∶3n-3) (Δ-6 desaturase substrates) are in direct competition for access to Δ-6 desaturase. Two experimental diets were formulated with fixed levels of ALA, while LA levels were varied (high and low) to examine if increased availability of LA would result in decreased bioconversion of ALA to its LC-PUFA products through substrate competition. No significant difference in ALA metabolism towards n-3 LC-PUFA was exhibited between diets while significant differences were observed in LA metabolism towards n-6 LC-PUFA. These results are evidence for minor if any competition between substrates for Δ-6 desaturase, suggesting that, paradoxically, the activity of Δ-6 desaturase on n-3 and n-6 substrates is independent. These results call for a paradigm shift in the way we approach teleost fatty acid metabolism. The findings are also important with regard to diet formulation in the aquaculture industry as they indicate that there should be no concern for possible substrate competition between 18∶3n-3 and 18∶2n-6, when aiming at increased n-3 LC-PUFA bioconversion in vivo.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/%CE%B46-desaturase-substrate-competition-dietary-linoleic-acid-182n6-only-trivial-effects-%CE%B1linolenic-acid", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Norway"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1011051"], "description"=>"<p>Data are expressed as mean ± s.e.m., <i>n</i>  = 3; <i>N</i>  = 6. P-value: <i>ns</i> = not significant; *, ** and *** indicate P<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001, respectively (diets and initial fish not included in the statistical test).</p>1<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463#pone-0057463-t001\" target=\"_blank\">table 1</a> for experimental diets and treatments abbreviation.</p>2<p>Fatty acid class abbreviations: SFA: saturated fatty acids; MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids; LC-PUFA, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (<20 carbon atoms); n-6: omega-6 fatty acids; n-3: omega-3 fatty acids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fatty", "fillets", "rainbow", "trout", "fillet", "fed", "diets", "88"], "article_id"=>671456, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry"], "users"=>["James A. Emery", "Karen Hermon", "Noor K. A. Hamid", "John A. Donald", "Giovanni M. Turchini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fatty_acid_composition_mg_g_lipid_of_experimental_diet_initial_fish_fillets_and_rainbow_trout_fillet_fed_the_experimental_diets_for_88_days_/671456", "title"=>"The fatty acid composition (mg/g lipid) of experimental diet, initial fish fillets and rainbow trout fillet fed the experimental diets for 88 days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-27 00:24:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/971761"], "description"=>"<p>Data presented as mean ± s.e.m. (<i>n</i> = 3; <i>N</i> = 6). No statistically significant differences were observed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fatty", "desaturase", "elongase", "rainbow", "trout", "fed"], "article_id"=>640602, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry"], "users"=>["James A. Emery", "Karen Hermon", "Noor K. A. Hamid", "John A. Donald", "Giovanni M. Turchini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differential_gene_expression_of_fatty_acid_916_6_desaturase_and_elongase_in_liver_of_rainbow_trout_fed_the_two_different_experimental_diets_/640602", "title"=>"Differential gene expression of fatty acid Δ-6 desaturase and elongase in liver of rainbow trout fed the two different experimental diets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 08:51:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1011127"], "description"=>"<p>Data are expressed as mean ± s.e.m., <i>n</i>  = 3; <i>N</i>  = 6. P-value: <i>ns</i> = not significant;</p>*<p>, ** and *** indicate P<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001, respectively.</p>1<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463#pone-0057463-t001\" target=\"_blank\">table 1</a> for experimental diets and treatments abbreviation.</p>2<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463#pone-0057463-t003\" target=\"_blank\">table 3</a> for fatty acid classes abbreviations. <sup>2</sup>Fatty acid classes abbreviations: SFA: saturated fatty acids; MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids; n-6 PUFA: omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-3 PUFA: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enzymatic", "activities", "desaturation", "elongation", "fatty", "acids", "grouped", "rainbow", "trout", "fillet", "fed", "diets", "88", "days", "deduced"], "article_id"=>671526, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry"], "users"=>["James A. Emery", "Karen Hermon", "Noor K. A. Hamid", "John A. Donald", "Giovanni M. Turchini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_apparent_in_vivo_enzymatic_activities_nmol_g_day_including_de_novo_production_oxidation_desaturation_and_elongation_of_total_fatty_acids_grouped_per_main_classes_in_rainbow_trout_fillet_fed_the_experimental_diets_for_88_days_and_deduced_by_the_whole_/671526", "title"=>"The apparent <i>in vivo</i> enzymatic activities (nmol/g/day), including <i>de novo</i> production, β-oxidation, desaturation and elongation of total fatty acids grouped per main classes, in rainbow trout fillet fed the experimental diets for 88 days and deduced by the whole body fatty acid balance method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-27 00:25:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/971770"], "description"=>"<p>Graphs are reported following the PUFA bioconversion pathway, from (<b>A</b>) substrate availability (dietary net intake); towards i) the dead end pathway (on the left): (<b>B</b>) elongation of 18∶2n-6 and 18∶3n-3; (<b>C</b>) elongation of 20∶2n-6 and 20∶3n-3; and ii) the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway(on the right): (<b>D</b>) Δ-6 desaturation of 18∶2n-6 and 18∶3n-3; (<b>E</b>) Elongation of 18∶3n-6 and 18∶4n-3; (<b>F</b>) Δ-5 desaturation of 20∶3n-6 and 20∶4n-3; (<b>G</b>) Elongation of 20∶4n-6 and 20∶5n-3; (<b>G</b>) Elongation, Δ-6 desaturation and chain shortening of 22∶4n-6 and 22∶5n-3. In each graph, bars represent mean ± s.e.m., <i>n</i>  = 3; <i>N</i>  = 6. P-value: <i>ns</i> = not significant; *, ** and *** indicate P<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioconversion", "rainbow", "trout", "fed", "diets", "deduced", "whole-body", "fatty"], "article_id"=>640611, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry"], "users"=>["James A. Emery", "Karen Hermon", "Noor K. A. Hamid", "John A. Donald", "Giovanni M. Turchini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_apparent_in_vivo_18_2n_6_and_18_3n_3_bioconversion_activity_nmol_g_day_in_rainbow_trout_fed_the_two_experimental_diets_LLA_and_HLA_and_deduced_by_the_whole_body_fatty_acid_balance_method_/640611", "title"=>"The apparent <i>in vivo</i> 18∶2n-6 and 18∶3n-3 bioconversion activity (nmol/g/day) in rainbow trout fed the two experimental diets (LLA and HLA) and deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 08:52:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1011076"], "description"=>"<p>Data are expressed as mean ± s.e.m., <i>n</i>  = 3; <i>N</i>  = 6. P-value: <i>ns</i> = not significant;</p>*<p>, ** and *** indicate P<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001, respectively.</p>1<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463#pone-0057463-t001\" target=\"_blank\">table 1</a> for experimental diets abbreviation.</p>2<p>SGR = Specific Growth Rate.</p>3<p>FCR = Food conversion ratio.</p>4<p>DP% =  dress-out percentage.</p>5<p>HSI% = hepatosomatic index.</p>6<p>Fulton's condition factor.</p>7<p>ADC = Apparent Digestibility Coefficients.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biometrical", "digestibility", "coefficients", "rainbow", "trout", "fed", "88"], "article_id"=>671481, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry"], "users"=>["James A. Emery", "Karen Hermon", "Noor K. A. Hamid", "John A. Donald", "Giovanni M. Turchini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_and_feed_utilization_parameters_biometrical_data_and_apparent_digestibility_coefficients_of_rainbow_trout_fed_the_experimental_diet_for_88_days_/671481", "title"=>"Growth and feed utilization parameters, biometrical data and apparent digestibility coefficients of rainbow trout fed the experimental diet for 88 days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-27 00:24:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1011098"], "description"=>"1<p>Experimental diets abbreviations: LLA Low Linoleic Acid diet; HLA – High Linoleic Acid diet.</p>2<p>Basal diet composition (g/kg): fish meal 129.4; poultry by-product meal 318.5; soybean protein concentrate 124.4; blood meal 24.9; pre-gelatinised starch 209.0; mineral and vitamin mix 8; amino acid mix (methionine, lysine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) 23.6; Celite® 5.</p>3<p>Nitrogen free extracts calculated by difference.</p>4<p>Calculated on the basis of 23.6, 39.5 and 17.2 kJ/g of protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proximate"], "article_id"=>671507, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry"], "users"=>["James A. Emery", "Karen Hermon", "Noor K. A. Hamid", "John A. Donald", "Giovanni M. Turchini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Formulation_and_proximate_composition_of_the_experimental_diets_/671507", "title"=>"Formulation and proximate composition of the experimental diets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-27 00:25:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/971766"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) <i>in vivo</i> fate of 18∶2n-6 in trout fed LLA; (<b>B</b>) <i>in vivo</i> fate of 18∶2n-6 in trout fed HLA; (<b>C</b>) <i>in vivo</i> fate of 18∶3n-3 in trout fed LLA; (<b>D</b>) <i>in vivo</i> fate of 18∶3n-3 in trout fed HLA. In each graph, data represent mean values (<i>n</i>  = 3; <i>N</i>  = 6), and the only statistically significant difference recorded was for the percentage of 18∶3n-3 directly elongated to 18∶4n-3 in trout fed LLA or HLA (*P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elongation", "desaturation", "deposition", "dietary", "rainbow", "trout", "fed", "diets", "deduced", "whole-body", "fatty"], "article_id"=>640607, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Biochemistry"], "users"=>["James A. Emery", "Karen Hermon", "Noor K. A. Hamid", "John A. Donald", "Giovanni M. Turchini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057463.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_apparent_in_vivo_fate_of_18_2n_6_or_18_3n_3_towards_direct_elongation_to_20_2n_6_or_20_3n_3_6_desaturation_to_18_3n_6_or_18_4n_3_oxidation_or_deposition_as_is_expressed_as_percentage_of_dietary_net_intake_in_rainbow_trout_fed_the_two_experimental_die/640607", "title"=>"The apparent <i>in vivo</i> fate of 18∶2n-6 or 18∶3n-3 towards direct elongation to 20∶2n-6 or 20∶3n-3, Δ-6 desaturation to 18∶3n-6 or 18∶4n-3, β-oxidation or deposition as is, expressed as percentage of dietary net intake, in rainbow trout fed the two experimental diets (LLA and HLA) and deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-28 08:51:58"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[264, 463, 602, 708, 816, 908, 1015, 1103, 1200, 1297, 1389, 1476, 1538]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[273, 476, 611, 714, 821, 911, 1005, 1103, 1201, 1287, 1388, 1478, 1557]}]}
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