Native Tertiary Structure and Nucleoside Modifications Suppress tRNA’s Intrinsic Ability to Activate the Innate Immune Sensor PKR
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Native Tertiary Structure and Nucleoside Modifications Suppress tRNA's Intrinsic Ability to Activate the Innate Immune Sensor PKR", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Subba Rao", "last_name"=>"Nallagatla", "scopus_author_id"=>"23028082600"}, {"first_name"=>"Christie N.", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"24076236800"}, {"first_name"=>"Saikat Kumar B.", "last_name"=>"Ghosh", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199380388"}, {"first_name"=>"Suresh D.", "last_name"=>"Sharma", "scopus_author_id"=>"35389736700"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig E.", "last_name"=>"Cameron", "scopus_author_id"=>"35565348900"}, {"first_name"=>"Linda L.", "last_name"=>"Spremulli", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005621662"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip C.", "last_name"=>"Bevilacqua", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006364103"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84874612971", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874612971", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"368465246", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0057905", "pmid"=>"23483938"}, "id"=>"8402a1e0-947a-37dd-bf5c-2a719067e28b", "abstract"=>"Interferon inducible protein kinase PKR is an essential component of innate immunity. It is activated by long stretches of dsRNA and provides the first line of host defense against pathogens by inhibiting translation initiation in the infected cell. Many cellular and viral transcripts contain nucleoside modifications and/or tertiary structure that could affect PKR activation. We have previously demonstrated that a 5'-end triphosphate-a signature of certain viral and bacterial transcripts-confers the ability of relatively unstructured model RNA transcripts to activate PKR to inhibit translation, and that this activation is abrogated by certain modifications present in cellular RNAs. In order to understand the biological implications of native RNA tertiary structure and nucleoside modifications on PKR activation, we study here the heavily modified cellular tRNAs and the unmodified or the lightly modified mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNA). We find that both a T7 transcript of yeast tRNA(Phe) and natively extracted total bovine liver mt-tRNA activate PKR in vitro, whereas native E. coli, bovine liver, yeast, and wheat tRNA(Phe) do not, nor do a variety of base- or sugar-modified T7 transcripts. These results are further supported by activation of PKR by a natively folded T7 transcript of tRNA(Phe)in vivo supporting the importance of tRNA modification in suppressing PKR activation in cells. We also examine PKR activation by a T7 transcript of the A14G pathogenic mutant of mt-tRNA(Leu), which is known to dimerize, and find that the misfolded dimeric form activates PKR in vitro while the monomeric form does not. Overall, the in vitro and in vivo findings herein indicate that tRNAs have an intrinsic ability to activate PKR and that nucleoside modifications and native RNA tertiary folding may function, at least in part, to suppress such activation, thus serving to distinguish self and non-self tRNA in innate immunity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/native-tertiary-structure-nucleoside-modifications-suppress-trnas-intrinsic-ability-activate-innate", "reader_count"=>17, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84874612971"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84874612971?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84874612971&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84874612971&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84874612971", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84874612971", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84874612971", "dc:title"=>"Native Tertiary Structure and Nucleoside Modifications Suppress tRNA's Intrinsic Ability to Activate the Innate Immune Sensor PKR", "dc:creator"=>"Nallagatla S.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"3", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-03-04", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"4 March 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0057905", "citedby-count"=>"17", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Pennsylvania State University", "affiliation-city"=>"University Park", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"AuraSense Therapeutics", "affiliation-city"=>"Skokie", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23483938", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e57905", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0057905", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"62", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"217"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"3"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976485"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Secondary structure of hs mt-tRNA<sup>Leu</sup> in the cloverleaf representation with the four stem-(loops) named (left-hand panel). In wild-type, the 14<sup>th</sup> position (bold font) is ‘A’, and in the pathogenic tRNA it is ‘G’. Schematic representation of the previously reported dimeric complex formed by the pathogenic A14G hs mt-tRNA<sup>Leu(UUR)</sup> mutant (right-hand panel), adopted from ref. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905#pone.0057905-Roy1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a>. (B) Dimerization assay for WT and A14G pathogenic hs mt-tRNA<sup>Leu</sup>. 2 µM tRNA samples in 1XTE were annealed for 5 min at the indicated renaturation temperature, MgCl<sub>2</sub> was added to 10 mM, and then cooled on ice. Samples were subjected to native gel electrophoresis with running buffer 0.5X TB (45 mM Tris base and 45 mM boric acid) and stained with ethidium bromide. Positions of the previously characterized <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905#pone.0057905-Wittenhagen1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a> dimeric species (present only for the mutant) and the monomeric species are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hs", "a14g", "mutant", "dimer"], "article_id"=>643962, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Subba Rao Nallagatla", "Christie N. Jones", "Saikat Kumar B. Ghosh", "Suresh D. Sharma", "Craig E. Cameron", "Linda L. Spremulli", "Philip C. Bevilacqua"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_hs_mt_tRNA_Leu_A14G_mutant_dimer_formation_/643962", "title"=>"Analysis of hs mt-tRNA<sup>Leu</sup> A14G mutant dimer formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 08:59:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976494"], "description"=>"<div><p>Interferon inducible protein kinase PKR is an essential component of innate immunity. It is activated by long stretches of dsRNA and provides the first line of host defense against pathogens by inhibiting translation initiation in the infected cell. Many cellular and viral transcripts contain nucleoside modifications and/or tertiary structure that could affect PKR activation. We have previously demonstrated that a 5′-end triphosphate–a signature of certain viral and bacterial transcripts–confers the ability of relatively unstructured model RNA transcripts to activate PKR to inhibit translation, and that this activation is abrogated by certain modifications present in cellular RNAs. In order to understand the biological implications of native RNA tertiary structure and nucleoside modifications on PKR activation, we study here the heavily modified cellular tRNAs and the unmodified or the lightly modified mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNA). We find that both a T7 transcript of yeast tRNA<sup>Phe</sup> and natively extracted total bovine liver mt-tRNA activate PKR <i>in vitro</i>, whereas native <i>E. coli</i>, bovine liver, yeast, and wheat tRNA<sup>Phe</sup> do not, nor do a variety of base- or sugar-modified T7 transcripts. These results are further supported by activation of PKR by a natively folded T7 transcript of tRNA<sup>Phe</sup><i>in vivo</i> supporting the importance of tRNA modification in suppressing PKR activation in cells. We also examine PKR activation by a T7 transcript of the A14G pathogenic mutant of mt-tRNA<sup>Leu</sup>, which is known to dimerize, and find that the misfolded dimeric form activates PKR <i>in vitro</i> while the monomeric form does not. Overall, the <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> findings herein indicate that tRNAs have an intrinsic ability to activate PKR and that nucleoside modifications and native RNA tertiary folding may function, at least in part, to suppress such activation, thus serving to distinguish self and non-self tRNA in innate immunity.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tertiary", "nucleoside", "modifications", "suppress", "intrinsic", "activate", "innate", "pkr"], "article_id"=>643971, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Subba Rao Nallagatla", "Christie N. Jones", "Saikat Kumar B. Ghosh", "Suresh D. Sharma", "Craig E. Cameron", "Linda L. Spremulli", "Philip C. Bevilacqua"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Native_Tertiary_Structure_and_Nucleoside_Modifications_Suppress_tRNA_s_Intrinsic_Ability_to_Activate_the_Innate_Immune_Sensor_PKR__/643971", "title"=>"Native Tertiary Structure and Nucleoside Modifications Suppress tRNA’s Intrinsic Ability to Activate the Innate Immune Sensor PKR", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:00:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976488"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Activation assays for native gel purified WT monomer and A14G dimer of mt-tRNA<sup>Leu</sup>. RNA concentrations are 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 µM. A no RNA control and a positive control of 0.1 µM dsRNA-79 are included. Phosphorylation activities are provided below each gel lane. Phosphorylation activities were normalized to dsRNA-79 and rounded to the nearest integer. (B, C) Binding assays for dsRBD of PKR (P20) and WT and A14G mt-tRNA<sup>Leu</sup>. Trace amount of 5′-<sup>32</sup>P-labeled tRNA was used in the binding experiments. Protein concentrations are 0, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µM and are present in Lanes 1 to 11, respectively. For one set of binding experiments (B) herring sperm DNA competitor was used (0.1 mg/mL) and for the other (C) tRNA competitor was used (0.1 mg/mL). Binding constants for A14G (○) and WT (•) in DNA competitor were 1.3 and 5.1 µM with Hill coefficients of 3.7 and 2.9 respectively, and in the presence of tRNA competitor they were 3.1 and >20 µM with Hill coefficients of 3.1 and undetermined, respectively. Higher Hill coefficients correlate with multiple bands of lower mobility on native gels, especially in Panel C (14G); this may relate to the dimer having enough binding registers to accommodate multiple copies of P20 at one time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["activated", "binds", "a14g"], "article_id"=>643965, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Subba Rao Nallagatla", "Christie N. Jones", "Saikat Kumar B. Ghosh", "Suresh D. Sharma", "Craig E. Cameron", "Linda L. Spremulli", "Philip C. Bevilacqua"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PKR_is_activated_by_and_binds_tightly_to_A14G_mt_tRNA_Leu_dimers_/643965", "title"=>"PKR is activated by and binds tightly to A14G mt-tRNA<sup>Leu</sup> dimers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 08:59:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976483"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Activation assays for total tRNAs isolated from <i>E. coli</i>, bovine liver, yeast, wheat, and mitochondrial bovine liver. RNA concentrations are 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 µM. (B) PKR activation for T7 transcript and natively isolated mitochondrial tRNAs specific for methionine. RNA concentrations are 0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 µM. For each panel, a control of no RNA and a positive control of 0.1 µM dsRNA-79 are included. Phosphorylation activities are provided below each gel lane. Phosphorylation activities were normalized to dsRNA-79 and rounded to the nearest integer.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pkr", "trnas"], "article_id"=>643960, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Subba Rao Nallagatla", "Christie N. Jones", "Saikat Kumar B. Ghosh", "Suresh D. Sharma", "Craig E. Cameron", "Linda L. Spremulli", "Philip C. Bevilacqua"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_of_PKR_by_tRNAs_from_various_sources_/643960", "title"=>"Activation of PKR by tRNAs from various sources.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 08:58:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976481"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Secondary structure of tRNA<sup>Phe</sup> in the cloverleaf representation. Positions of modifications are depicted in bold font, where m2G = <i>N</i><sup>2</sup>-methylguanosine, D = dihydrouridine, m22G = <i>N</i><sup>2</sup>,<i>N</i><sup>2</sup>-dimethylguanosine, Cm = 2′-<i>O</i>-methylcytidine, Gm = 2′-<i>O</i>-methylguanosine, ψ = pseudouridine, m7G = 7-methylguanosine, m5C = 5-methylcytidine, and m1A = 1-methyladenosine, Y = wybutosine. (B) Activation assays for modified tRNAs (10% SDS-PAGE). RNA concentrations are 0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 µM. A no RNA control and a positive control of 0.1 µM dsRNA-79 are included. Positions of modifications are depicted, where 5′-ppp = triphosphate at 5′-terminus (present on all transcripts, unless otherwise noted), 5′-OH = hydroxyl at 5′-terminus, s2U = 2-thiouridine, m5C = 5-methylcytidine, 2′-FC = 2′-fluorocytidine, and, m1A, and Cm are as defined in panel A. Phosphorylation activities are provided below each gel lane. Phosphorylation activities were normalized to dsRNA-79 and rounded to the nearest integer.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trna", "modifications", "pkr"], "article_id"=>643958, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Subba Rao Nallagatla", "Christie N. Jones", "Saikat Kumar B. Ghosh", "Suresh D. Sharma", "Craig E. Cameron", "Linda L. Spremulli", "Philip C. Bevilacqua"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_tRNA_modifications_on_PKR_activation_/643958", "title"=>"Effect of tRNA modifications on PKR activation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 08:58:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976492"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were plated 8 h before transfection. Cells were transfected for 16 h with 2 µg of either 79 bp dsRNA (lane 2), native tRNA<sup>Phe</sup> (Sigma) (lane 3), or unmodified yeast tRNA<sup>Phe</sup> (T7) (lane 4), except in the ‘mock’ lane (lane 1) which had no RNA. The tRNA and dsRNA-79 were prepared as per <i>in vitro</i> activation experiments. The ‘mock’ and ‘dsRNA-79′ lanes serve as negative and positive controls, respectively, for PKR phosphorylation. Proteins were denatured in SDS buffer and resolved in 10% SDS-PAGE. Phosphorylated PKR (PKR-p), phosphorylated eIF2α (eIF2α-p), and GAPDH (loading control) were identified by Western blotting.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pkr", "yeast", "trna"], "article_id"=>643969, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Chemistry", "Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Subba Rao Nallagatla", "Christie N. Jones", "Saikat Kumar B. Ghosh", "Suresh D. Sharma", "Craig E. Cameron", "Linda L. Spremulli", "Philip C. Bevilacqua"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057905.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_of_PKR_by_yeast_tRNA_in_vivo_/643969", "title"=>"Activation of PKR by yeast tRNA <i>in vivo</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:00:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[272, 472, 600, 713, 815, 911, 1004, 1094, 1185, 1273, 1358, 1441]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[272, 466, 589, 702, 806, 903, 995, 1086, 1176, 1258, 1347, 1422, 1493]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[247, 429, 544, 647, 747, 842, 929, 1012, 1099, 1179, 1263, 1339, 1409]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts