Noise Normalizes Firing Output of Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Neurons
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Noise Normalizes Firing Output of Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Neurons", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rajiv", "last_name"=>"Wijesinghe", "scopus_author_id"=>"23010518700"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel G.", "last_name"=>"Solomon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401460528"}, {"first_name"=>"Aaron J.", "last_name"=>"Camp", "scopus_author_id"=>"8625299100"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874563852", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0057961", "sgr"=>"84874563852", "pmid"=>"23469120", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368451135"}, "id"=>"ec40a132-68ee-39a2-afe6-a9b02aaea192", "abstract"=>"The output of individual neurons is dependent on both synaptic and intrinsic membrane properties. While it is clear that the response of an individual neuron can be facilitated or inhibited based on the summation of its constituent synaptic inputs, it is not clear whether subthreshold activity, (e.g. synaptic \"noise\"--fluctuations that do not change the mean membrane potential) also serve a function in the control of neuronal output. Here we studied this by making whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from 29 mouse thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons. For each neuron we measured neuronal gain in response to either injection of current noise, or activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated cortical feedback network (synaptic noise). As expected, injection of current noise via the recording pipette induces shifts in neuronal gain that are dependent on the amplitude of current noise, such that larger shifts in gain are observed in response to larger amplitude noise injections. Importantly we show that shifts in neuronal gain are also dependent on the intrinsic sensitivity of the neuron tested, such that the gain of intrinsically sensitive neurons is attenuated divisively in response to current noise, while the gain of insensitive neurons is facilitated multiplicatively by injection of current noise- effectively normalizing the output of the dLGN as a whole. In contrast, when the cortical feedback network was activated, only multiplicative gain changes were observed. These network activation-dependent changes were associated with reductions in the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP), and were mediated at least in part, by T-type calcium channels. Together, this suggests that TC neurons have the machinery necessary to compute multiple output solutions to a given set of stimuli depending on the current level of network stimulation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/noise-normalizes-firing-output-mouse-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-neurons", "reader_count"=>14, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84874563852"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84874563852?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84874563852&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84874563852&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84874563852", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84874563852", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84874563852", "dc:title"=>"Noise Normalizes Firing Output of Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Neurons", "dc:creator"=>"Wijesinghe R.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"2", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-02-28", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"28 February 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0057961", "citedby-count"=>"5", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Sydney Medical School", "affiliation-city"=>"Sydney", "affiliation-country"=>"Australia"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23469120", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e57961", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0057961", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/975547"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. The dLGN is shown in relation the hippocampus (CA3 and CA1), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), lateral posterior nucleus (LP), posterior nucleus (PO), and the medial portion of the posterior nucleus (VPM) in a coronal plane (2.06 mm caudal to Bregma, left hemisphere). Inset shows the map of recording sites within the dLGN. Note that cells were recorded throughout the dorsoventral, and mediolateral extent of the LGN (Plates 45–51 in Paxinos and Watson, 2008. On the bottom right is a photo of a representative TC neuron. <b>B</b>. The response of a cell to a noisy current stimulus with a mean current of 0 pA. The value σ<sub>12.5</sub> for current noise of different standard deviations (n) was calculated as the standard deviation of the recorded membrane potential. The noise levels presented throughout are the average of the standard deviation (caused by this stimulus for each n) across all cells tested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal", "lateral", "geniculate", "nucleus"], "article_id"=>643245, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Rajiv Wijesinghe", "Samuel G. Solomon", "Aaron J. Camp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057961.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_the_mouse_dorsal_lateral_geniculate_nucleus_dLGN_and_representative_noise_stimuli_/643245", "title"=>"Schematic of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and representative noise stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-01 17:19:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/975564"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Graph plotting the increase in gain during bath-application of 250 µM Ni<sup>2+</sup> for each recorded cell. <b>B</b>. As in <b>A</b>., with sAHP plotted for each cell.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["additive", "multiplicative"], "article_id"=>643262, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Rajiv Wijesinghe", "Samuel G. Solomon", "Aaron J. Camp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057961.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_type_Ca_2_channel_block_induces_additive_and_multiplicative_gain_changes_/643262", "title"=>"T-type Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel block induces additive and multiplicative gain changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-01 17:21:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/975560"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Gain changes were not uniform within the recorded population, as noise reduced gain in cells with initially high gains (n  =  5, open circles), and increased gain in those with low initial gains (n  =  13, closed circles). <b>B.</b> Histograms of gains across the sample population (n  =  18) under control conditions (dashed line) and for the highest level of noise (σ<sub>50</sub>, solid line). Note the sharper distribution of gains under noisy conditions. <b>C</b>. The standard deviation of the average of gains across the population, plotted against the corresponding noise level. The standard deviation is reduced by 52% at high noise levels. Data were fit with an inverse exponential function.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["normalises"], "article_id"=>643258, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Rajiv Wijesinghe", "Samuel G. Solomon", "Aaron J. Camp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057961.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Noise_normalises_gain_changes_/643258", "title"=>"Noise normalises gain changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-01 17:20:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/975555"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Firing rate as a function of input current amplitude (f-I relationship) for a typical TC cell. A straight line was fitted from the first point above tonic firing threshold to the last recorded response; the slope of this fit was a measure of gain. The gain and threshold of this neuron were 0.432 Hz/pA and 180 pA respectively. Shown to the right are representative traces recorded in response to 200, 300 and 400 pA (square, diamond, and circle respectively) current pulses. <b>B</b>. Firing threshold plotted as a function of gain. Both measures were normalised against the input resistance of each cell to minimize error associated with cell soma area. The average of each measure (and their respective SEMs) is indicated by the empty circle. A histogram of normalised gain (above) demonstrates that gains are normally distributed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "gains"], "article_id"=>643253, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Rajiv Wijesinghe", "Samuel G. Solomon", "Aaron J. Camp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057961.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TC_cells_display_a_wide_range_of_gains_and_thresholds_/643253", "title"=>"TC cells display a wide range of gains and thresholds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-01 17:20:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/975551"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. The stereotypical response of a TC cell to a 1s, 200 pA depolarising current pulse delivered from resting membrane potential (-65 mV). The onset of the response (first 150 ms, inset) is characterised by a high frequency burst of spikes (246 Hz, arrow) followed by a shift to tonic firing. <b>B</b> . Interspike interval (i.s.i.) histogram (1 ms bin width) from a single TC cell in the response to a set of 20 current steps from 0 to 400 pA. Note the clear segregation either side of the 5 ms interval. Adjacent spikes with intervals shorter than 5 ms were classified as “burst” spikes, while those greater than 5 ms were classified as “tonic” spikes. Intervals greater than 50 ms (4 out of 693 in this example) were excluded from the plot for clarity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tonic", "spikes", "temporal"], "article_id"=>643249, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Rajiv Wijesinghe", "Samuel G. Solomon", "Aaron J. Camp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057961.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burst_and_tonic_spikes_occur_within_exclusive_temporal_domains_/643249", "title"=>"Burst and tonic spikes occur within exclusive temporal domains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-01 17:20:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/975561"], "description"=>"<p><b>A and B</b>. Bath-application of 250 µM trans-ACPD increased the standard deviation of the membrane potential in TC cells. Note the large increase in activity centred around baseline (dashed line, -67 mV) in A. The increase in SD is comparable to the highest level of current noise (1.57 vs 1.6 ). <b>C</b>. For each individual cell (n  =  3) bath application of trans-ACPD increased gain in comparison to control. The increase in gain was paralleled by a reduction in the amplitude of the sAHP (<b>D</b>; main panel and inset).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["synaptic", "multiplicative"], "article_id"=>643260, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Rajiv Wijesinghe", "Samuel G. Solomon", "Aaron J. Camp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057961.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Increased_synaptic_noise_induces_multiplicative_gain_changes_/643260", "title"=>"Increased synaptic noise induces multiplicative gain changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-01 17:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/975558"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Shows for a typical TC cell the f-I relationships plotted at different levels of current noise (σ<sub>n</sub>, where σ is the standard deviation of the membrane potential in response to a ‘noisy’ current pulse with a mean current of 0 pA, and n represents the standard deviation of the injected current noise). In this example, the highest level of noise significantly increased the gain (0.05 to 0.39 Hz/pA; multiplicative gain change, indicated by an increase in the slope) and decreased the threshold (160 to 140 pA; additive gain change, indicated by a shift to the left) of this cell in comparison to control conditions. <b>B</b>. Gains averaged across the sample population plotted against noise level. On average, increasing levels of noise increased the gain of TC cells. Data points were well fit by an inverse exponential function, indicating that increases in gain saturate at high noise levels. <b>C</b>. Increasing levels of noise reduced the threshold of TC cells. As in B, this reduction saturated at high noise levels (between 1.0 and 1.5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["additive", "multiplicative"], "article_id"=>643256, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Rajiv Wijesinghe", "Samuel G. Solomon", "Aaron J. Camp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057961.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Noise_induces_both_additive_and_multiplicative_gain_changes_/643256", "title"=>"Noise induces both additive and multiplicative gain changes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-01 17:20:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 449, 572, 676, 775, 866, 955, 1041, 1127, 1213, 1290, 1370, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Neural networks", "average_usage"=>[284, 481, 590, 705, 782, 880, 969, 1051, 1141, 1227, 1337, 1399, 1463]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts