Retinal Amino Acid Neurochemistry of the Southern Hemisphere Lamprey, Geotria australis
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{"title"=>"Retinal Amino Acid Neurochemistry of the Southern Hemisphere Lamprey, Geotria australis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lisa", "last_name"=>"Nivison-Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"55615394700"}, {"first_name"=>"Shaun P.", "last_name"=>"Collin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102643146"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuan", "last_name"=>"Zhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55602175800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Ready", "scopus_author_id"=>"22136254100"}, {"first_name"=>"Monica L.", "last_name"=>"Acosta", "scopus_author_id"=>"8895548600"}, {"first_name"=>"David M.", "last_name"=>"Hunt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402464762"}, {"first_name"=>"Ian C.", "last_name"=>"Potter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102695010"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Kalloniatis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004108096"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84874854103", "pmid"=>"23516473", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874854103", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368518466", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0058406"}, "id"=>"84fb827c-d639-39e9-8778-e360aa5fddbb", "abstract"=>"Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells are more sensitive to environmental changes associated with migration.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/retinal-amino-acid-neurochemistry-southern-hemisphere-lamprey-geotria-australis", "reader_count"=>9, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986117"], "description"=>"<p>Retinas of downstream (DS) and upstream (US) migrating <i>G. australis</i> were incubated for <b>A–B:</b> 5 min, <b>C–D:</b> 20 min, <b>E–F:</b> 60 min and <b>G:</b> 0 min with AGB. AGB labelled cells in the INL are indicated with white arrows. Abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Scale bar is 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["permeability", "agb"], "article_id"=>651266, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cation_channel_permeability_based_on_AGB_immunoreactivity_/651266", "title"=>"Cation channel permeability based on AGB immunoreactivity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:50:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986120"], "description"=>"<p>Recoverin (Rec) immunoreactivity in the <b>A:</b> downstream (DS) migrating and <b>B:</b> upstream (US) migrating <i>G. australis.</i> Calbindin (CalB) immunoreactivity in the <b>C:</b> downstream migrating and <b>D:</b> upstream migrating <i>G. australis</i><b><i>.</i></b> Labelled photoreceptors and IPL cells are denoted by white arrowheads and arrows respectively. Calretinin (CalR) immunoreactivity in the <b>E:</b> downstream migrating and <b>F:</b> upstream migrating <i>G. australis</i><b><i>.</i></b> In the downstream migrating animal (<b>E</b>), CalR immunoreactive cells in the inner IPL were found near the inner limiting membrane (white arrow) but not in the mid IPL (black arrow). In the upstream migrating animal (<b>F</b>), three different bands of CalR intensity was present in the IPL (white arrows). The white arrowhead indicates labelled nerve fibers. Abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Scale bar is 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["calcium", "binding", "proteins", "retina"], "article_id"=>651269, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Distribution_of_calcium_binding_proteins_in_the_retina_of_i_G_australis_i_/651269", "title"=>"Distribution of calcium binding proteins in the retina of <i>G. australis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986121"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic of the <b>A:</b> downstream migrant and <b>B:</b> upstream migrant retinas and their relative amino acid distribution. Drawings on the left indicate the retinal organisation and the degree of shading indicates the average intensity of labelling seen for that amino acid relative to labelling in the rest of the retina. Abbreviations – Glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobuytric acid (GABA), glycine (Gly), Glutamine (Gln), Aspartate (Asp), Taurine (Tau). All other abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amino", "retina"], "article_id"=>651270, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Schematic_of_amino_acid_distribution_in_the_retina_of_i_G_australis_i_/651270", "title"=>"Schematic of amino acid distribution in the retina of <i>G. australis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:51:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986123"], "description"=>"<div><p>Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey <i>Geotria australis</i> during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of <i>G. australis</i> confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells are more sensitive to environmental changes associated with migration.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retinal", "amino", "Neurochemistry", "hemisphere"], "article_id"=>651272, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Retinal_Amino_Acid_Neurochemistry_of_the_Southern_Hemisphere_Lamprey_em_Geotria_australis_em_/651272", "title"=>"Retinal Amino Acid Neurochemistry of the Southern Hemisphere Lamprey, <em>Geotria australis</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:52:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1006956"], "description"=>"*<p>This antibody was kindly donated by Dr R. E. Marc but is also commercially available through Chemicon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibodies", "immunofluorescence"], "article_id"=>667580, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Primary_antibodies_used_in_the_immunofluorescence_protocol_/667580", "title"=>"Primary antibodies used in the immunofluorescence protocol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-13 02:06:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1006936"], "description"=>"<p>The antibodies used for this study were kindly donated by Dr R. E. Marc but are now also commercially available through Chemicon and Signature Immunologics. All antibodies are rabbit polyclonal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibodies"], "article_id"=>667562, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Amino_acid_primary_antibodies_used_in_this_study_/667562", "title"=>"Amino acid primary antibodies used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-13 02:06:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986097"], "description"=>"<p>The downstream <i>G. australis</i> retina is densely packed with over 10 layers of cells in the INL. The upstream <i>G. australis</i> retina is much larger; dominated by large photoreceptors and a reduced number of cell layers in the INL. The majority of the ganglion cells are displaced to the INL and a few orthotopic ganglion cells lie at the vitread border of the IPL and in the middle of the IPL. Figure is not drawn to scale. Abbreviations - RPE: retinal pigment epithelium, PR: photoreceptors, OLM: outer limiting membrane, ONL: outer nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, INL: inner nuclear layer, HCL: horizontal cell layer, oINL: outer INL, iINL: inner INL, IPL: inner plexiform layer, mIPL: mid IPL, iIPL: inner IPL.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retina", "downstream", "upstream", "migrants"], "article_id"=>651250, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Schematic_of_the_retina_of_downstream_and_upstream_migrants_of_G_australis_/651250", "title"=>"Schematic of the retina of downstream and upstream migrants of G australis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:45:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986099"], "description"=>"<p>Glutamate immunoreactivity in the <b>A, C</b>: downstream migrant (DS) and <b>B, D</b>: upstream migrant (US) of <i>G. australis. </i><b>A:</b> Glutamate immunoreactivity in the downstream migrant was observed in the ONL at different intensities (white arrowheads). Strong immunoreactivity was also seen in some cells in the INL (white arrows) and Müller cell endfeet (black arrow). <b>B:</b> In the upstream migrant, numerous large and small photoreceptor cells were immunoreactive (white arrowheads), as well as other INL cells (white arrows). Müller cell endfeet displayed low glutamate immunoreactivity (black arrow). Magnified images confirm that <b>C:</b> Müller cells in the downstream migrant were immunoreactive for glutamate (white arrows) and <b>D:</b> horizontal cells (HC; white arrowheads), putative bipolar cells (BC; white arrows) and the nerve fiber layer (NF) are glutamate immunoreactive in the upstream migrant. Müller cell (MC) somata (asterisk) and processes (black arrows) were immunonegative. Retinal layers are denoted by the lines and annotations on the left of each image and include the photoreceptors (PR), outer nuclear layer (ONL), inner nuclear layer (INL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL). Note that due to the small thickness of the OPL, it was not labelled for clarity. Scale bar for all images is 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glutamate", "australis"], "article_id"=>651252, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Localization_of_glutamate_in_the_G_australis_retina_/651252", "title"=>"Localization of glutamate in the G. australis retina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:46:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986101"], "description"=>"<p>GABA immunoreactivity in the <b>A, C:</b> downstream migrant and <b>B, D, E:</b> upstream migrant of <i>G. australis. </i><b>A–B:</b> GABA immunoreactivity of the whole retina. White arrows indicate weakly GABA positive bipolar cells and black arrows indicate GABA reactive cells in the IPL. <b>C–E:</b> Magnified images of the INL. White arrowheads indicate GABA immunoreactive horizontal cells (HC) and white arrows in highlight bipolar cell (BC) processes extending towards the outer plexiform layer. Abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Scale bar is 20 µm for all images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gaba", "australis"], "article_id"=>651254, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Localization_of_GABA_in_the_G_australis_retina_/651254", "title"=>"Localization of GABA in the G. australis retina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:46:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986104"], "description"=>"<p>Glycine immunoreactivity of <b>A, C, E:</b> the downstream migrant and <b>B, D, F:</b> upstream migrant of <i>G. australis. </i><b>A–B:</b> Glycine immunoreactivity of total retina where white arrows indicate labelled cells in the mid and inner IPL and white arrowheads indicate strongly labelled putative interplexiform cells (IPC). <b>C–D:</b> Magnified images of putative glycine immunoreactive IPCs (white arrows). <b>E–F:</b> The morphology of putative glycinergic interplexiform cells and their dendrites drawn with the aid of a camera lucida. Abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Scale bar is 20 µm in microscope images and 10 µm in drawings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glycine", "australis"], "article_id"=>651257, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Localization_of_glycine_in_the_G_australis_retina_/651257", "title"=>"Localization of glycine in the G. australis retina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:47:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986108"], "description"=>"<p>Glutamine (Gln) immunoreactivity in the <b>A, C:</b> downstream migrating (DS) and <b>B, D:</b> upstream (US) migrating <i>G. australis. </i><b>A–B:</b> Glutamine immunoreactivity across the whole retina. White arrowheads indicate the few immunoreactive cell somata in the INL and white arrows indicate the columns of glutamine immunoreactivity extending towards the ONL. <b>C–D:</b> Magnified images of the INL demonstrating Müller cell processes traversing the retina (white arrows). Glutamine synthetase (GS) immunoreactivity was also determined in the <b>E:</b> downstream and <b>F:</b> upstream migrating <i>G. australis.</i> Müller cell (MC) processes are indicated with small white arrows and the immunoreactive outer limiting membrane (OLM) but a large white arrow. Abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Scale bar is 20 µm for all images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glutamine", "australis"], "article_id"=>651260, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Localization_of_glutamine_in_the_G_australis_retina_/651260", "title"=>"Localization of glutamine in the G. australis retina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:48:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986111"], "description"=>"<p>Aspartate immunoreactivity in <b>A, C:</b> the downstream migrant and <b>B, D:</b> the upstream migrant of <i>G. australis. </i><b>A:</b> Aspartate immunoreactivity for the downstream animals was confined to the mid INL (white arrowheads) and punctate staining along the outer limiting membrane (white arrow). <b>B:</b> Aspartate immunoreactivity in the upstream animal was observed in different photoreceptors (white arrowheads) and some small cells in the INL (white arrows). <b>C:</b> Magnified image of the downstream migrant retina showing aspartate immunoreactivity across the outer limiting membrane (OLM). <b>D:</b> Magnified image of the INL in the upstream migrating <i>G. australis</i> showing immunoreactive horizontal cells (HC) and nerve fibers (NF) are indicated. Abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Scale bar is 20 µm in all figures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspartate", "australis"], "article_id"=>651261, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Localization_of_aspartate_in_the_G_australis_retina_/651261", "title"=>"Localization of aspartate in the G. australis retina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:48:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/986114"], "description"=>"<p>Taurine immunoreactivity in <b>A, C, E:</b> the downstream migrant and <b>B, D, F:</b> the upstream migrant of <i>G. australis. </i><b>A–B:</b> Taurine immunoreactivity across the whole retina length. White arrows indicate putative taurine labelled bipolar cells, black arrows indicate weakly labelled IPL cells and white arrowheads indicate various photoreceptor types immunoreactive for taurine. <b>C:</b> Magnified image of the INL with white arrows indicating immunoreactive Müller cell processes. <b>D:</b> Magnified image of the INL in the upstream migrant of <i>G. australis.</i> Taurine immunoreactivity was present in a putative bipolar cell (BC; white arrows) and a weakly labelled horizontal cell (HC). Immunoreactivity was absent in nerve fibers (NF). <b>E–F:</b> Taurine immunoreactivity of vitreous-IPL border where Müller cell endfeet are located. Abbreviations are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406#pone-0058406-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Scale bar is 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["taurine", "australis"], "article_id"=>651263, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Physiology"], "users"=>["Lisa Nivison-Smith", "Shaun P. Collin", "Yuan Zhu", "Sarah Ready", "Monica L. Acosta", "David M. Hunt", "Ian C. Potter", "Michael Kalloniatis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058406.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Localization_of_taurine_in_the_G_australis_retina_/651263", "title"=>"Localization of taurine in the G. australis retina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 09:49:37"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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