Circadian Clock Gene Per2 Is Not Necessary for the Photoperiodic Response in Mice
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{"title"=>"Circadian Clock Gene Per2 Is Not Necessary for the Photoperiodic Response in Mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Keisuke", "last_name"=>"Ikegami", "scopus_author_id"=>"35336871500"}, {"first_name"=>"Masayuki", "last_name"=>"Iigo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56274143500"}, {"first_name"=>"Takashi", "last_name"=>"Yoshimura", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402914922"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23505514", "sgr"=>"84874687029", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0058482", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874687029", "pui"=>"368480552", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"3cf17c96-08ac-33bf-b81e-b1673a8088dd", "abstract"=>"In mammals, light information received by the eyes is transmitted to the pineal gland via the circadian pacemaker, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland at night decodes night length and regulates seasonal physiology and behavior. Melatonin regulates the expression of the β-subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; Tshb) in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. Long day-induced PT TSH acts on ependymal cells in the mediobasal hypothalamus to induce the expression of type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) and reduce type 3 deiodinase (Dio3) that are thyroid hormone-activating and hormone-inactivating enzymes, respectively. The long day-activated thyroid hormone T3 regulates seasonal gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. It is well established that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of photoperiodism. However, the involvement of the circadian clock gene in photoperiodism regulation remains unclear. Although mice are generally considered non-seasonal animals, it was recently demonstrated that mice are a good model for the study of photoperiodism. In the present study, therefore, we examined the effect of changing day length in Per2 deletion mutant mice that show shorter wheel-running rhythms under constant darkness followed by arhythmicity. Although the amplitude of clock gene (Per1, Cry1) expression was greatly attenuated in the SCN, the expression profile of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, a rate-limiting melatonin synthesis enzyme, was unaffected in the pineal gland, and robust photoperiodic responses of the Tshb, Dio2, and Dio3 genes were observed. These results suggested that the Per2 clock gene is not necessary for the photoperiodic response in mice.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/circadian-clock-gene-per2-not-necessary-photoperiodic-response-mice", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/980235"], "description"=>"<p>Temporal changes in <i>Per1</i> (A, B), <i>Cry1</i> (C, D), and <i>Cry2</i> (E, F) expressions in the SCN of the wild-type and <i>Per2</i> mutant mice under short-day and long-day conditions. The dark and light lines in each graph represent the data of the wild-type and the <i>Per2</i> mutant mice, respectively. The bars at the bottom of each graph represent the light conditions. Representative autoradiograms of the SCN are also shown. *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01 <i>Per2</i>+/+ vs. <i>Per2</i> m/m at the same time point (Student’s <i>t</i>-test), mean ± SEM (n = 4–5). The arrowhead indicates the peak phase determined using cosinor curve fitting.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "suprachiasmatic", "nucleus"], "article_id"=>646704, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Keisuke Ikegami", "Masayuki Iigo", "Takashi Yoshimura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_analysis_of_clock_genes_in_the_suprachiasmatic_nucleus_SCN_under_short_long_day_conditions_/646704", "title"=>"Expression analysis of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) under short/long day conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 09:46:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/980239"], "description"=>"<p>Temporal gene expressions of <i>Per1</i> (A, B), <i>Cry1</i> (C, D), <i>Cry2</i> (E, F), and <i>Aanat</i> (G, H) in the pineal gland under short-day and long-day conditions. The bars at the bottom of each graph represent the light conditions. Representative autoradiograms of the pineal gland (A, arrowhead) are also shown. *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01 <i>Per2</i>+/+ vs. <i>Per2</i> m/m at the same time point (Student’s <i>t</i>-test), mean ± SEM (n = 4–5). The arrowhead indicates the peak phase determined using cosinor curve fitting.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["profiles", "circadian", "genes", "arylalkylamine", "expressions", "pineal"], "article_id"=>646706, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Keisuke Ikegami", "Masayuki Iigo", "Takashi Yoshimura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_expression_profiles_of_the_circadian_clock_genes_and_arylalkylamine_N_acetyltransferase_Aanat_gene_expressions_in_the_pineal_gland_/646706", "title"=>"Temporal expression profiles of the circadian clock genes and arylalkylamine <i>N</i>-acetyltransferase (<i>Aanat</i>) gene expressions in the pineal gland.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 09:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/980245"], "description"=>"<p>Data were replotted from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482#pone-0058482-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>. The bars at the bottom of each graph represent the short-day (SD; blue) and long-day (LD; red) conditions. Representative autoradiograms of the pineal gland are also shown. *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01 LD vs. SD at the same time point (Student’s <i>t</i>-test), mean ± SEM (n = 4–5).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["profiles", "wild-type", "mutant", "mice", "short-day", "long-day"], "article_id"=>646708, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Keisuke Ikegami", "Masayuki Iigo", "Takashi Yoshimura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_expression_profiles_of_the_Aanat_gene_in_wild_type_A_and_Per2_mutant_mice_B_under_short_day_and_long_day_conditions_/646708", "title"=>"Temporal expression profiles of the <i>Aanat</i> gene in wild-type (A) and <i>Per2</i> mutant mice (B) under short-day and long-day conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 09:47:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/980247"], "description"=>"<p>Temporal expression profiles of the circadian clock genes (<i>Per1</i>, <i>Cry1,</i> and <i>Cry2</i>) in the PT of wild-type and <i>Per2</i> mutant mice. The bars at the bottom of each graph represent the light conditions. The dark and light lines in each graph represent the data of the wild-type and the <i>Per2</i> mutant mice, respectively. *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01 <i>Per2</i>+/+ vs. <i>Per2</i> m/m at the same time point (Student’s <i>t</i>-test), mean ± SEM (n = 4–5). The arrowhead indicates the peak phase determined using cosinor curve fitting.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coincidence", "timer", "pars", "tuberalis"], "article_id"=>646709, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Keisuke Ikegami", "Masayuki Iigo", "Takashi Yoshimura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_No_clear_internal_coincidence_timer_in_the_mouse_pars_tuberalis_PT_/646709", "title"=>"No clear internal coincidence timer in the mouse pars tuberalis (PT).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 09:48:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/980251"], "description"=>"<p>The bars at the bottom of each graph represent the light conditions. The dark and light lines in each graph represent the data for the wild-type and the <i>Per2</i> mutant mice, respectively. *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01 <i>Per2</i>+/+ vs. <i>Per2</i> m/m at the same time point (Student’s <i>t</i>-test), mean ± SEM (n = 4–5). The arrowhead indicates the peak phase determined using cosinor curve fitting.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["photoperiodic", "genes", "regulating", "seasonal", "reproduction", "wild-type", "mutant"], "article_id"=>646711, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Keisuke Ikegami", "Masayuki Iigo", "Takashi Yoshimura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_photoperiodic_response_of_key_genes_regulating_seasonal_reproduction_in_wild_type_and_Per2_mutant_mice_/646711", "title"=>"The photoperiodic response of key genes regulating seasonal reproduction in wild-type and <i>Per2</i> mutant mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 09:48:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/980256"], "description"=>"<div><p>In mammals, light information received by the eyes is transmitted to the pineal gland via the circadian pacemaker, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland at night decodes night length and regulates seasonal physiology and behavior. Melatonin regulates the expression of the β-subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; <i>Tshb</i>) in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. Long day-induced PT TSH acts on ependymal cells in the mediobasal hypothalamus to induce the expression of type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) and reduce type 3 deiodinase (Dio3) that are thyroid hormone-activating and hormone-inactivating enzymes, respectively. The long day-activated thyroid hormone T<sub>3</sub> regulates seasonal gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. It is well established that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of photoperiodism. However, the involvement of the circadian clock gene in photoperiodism regulation remains unclear. Although mice are generally considered non-seasonal animals, it was recently demonstrated that mice are a good model for the study of photoperiodism. In the present study, therefore, we examined the effect of changing day length in <i>Per2</i> deletion mutant mice that show shorter wheel-running rhythms under constant darkness followed by arhythmicity. Although the amplitude of clock gene (<i>Per1</i>, <i>Cry1</i>) expression was greatly attenuated in the SCN, the expression profile of arylalkylamine <i>N</i>-acetyltransferase, a rate-limiting melatonin synthesis enzyme, was unaffected in the pineal gland, and robust photoperiodic responses of the <i>Tshb</i>, <i>Dio2,</i> and <i>Dio3</i> genes were observed. These results suggested that the <i>Per2</i> clock gene is not necessary for the photoperiodic response in mice.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["circadian", "photoperiodic", "mice"], "article_id"=>646715, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Keisuke Ikegami", "Masayuki Iigo", "Takashi Yoshimura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Circadian_Clock_Gene_Per2_Is_Not_Necessary_for_the_Photoperiodic_Response_in_Mice__/646715", "title"=>"Circadian Clock Gene <em>Per2</em> Is Not Necessary for the Photoperiodic Response in Mice", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 09:49:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/980233"], "description"=>"<p>(A, C) Locomotor activity of melatonin-proficient wild-type (<i>Per2</i>+/+) and <i>Per2</i> deletion mutant (<i>Per2</i> m/m) mice in a running wheel and (B, D) their periodogram analyses under constant darkness. (A, C) The bar over the records indicates the light-dark cycles. The mice were transferred from 12L12D to constant darkness (DD). The <i>Per2</i> mutant mice showed shorter free-running rhythms followed by arhythmicity. Periodogram analyses were performed during the last 7 days. The peak above the diagonal line (<0.1%) indicates the significant circadian period (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhythms", "melatonin-proficient", "wild-type", "deletion", "mutant"], "article_id"=>646702, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Keisuke Ikegami", "Masayuki Iigo", "Takashi Yoshimura"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058482.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wheel_running_activity_rhythms_of_melatonin_proficient_wild_type_and_Per2_deletion_mutant_mice_/646702", "title"=>"Wheel-running activity rhythms of melatonin-proficient wild-type and <i>Per2</i> deletion mutant mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 09:46:11"}

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Relative Metric

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