Cthulhu Macrofasciculumque n. g., n. sp. and Cthylla Microfasciculumque n. g., n. sp., a Newly Identified Lineage of Parabasalian Termite Symbionts
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{"title"=>"Cthulhu Macrofasciculumque n. g., n. sp. and Cthylla Microfasciculumque n. g., n. sp., a Newly Identified Lineage of Parabasalian Termite Symbionts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Erick R.", "last_name"=>"James", "scopus_author_id"=>"55729625000"}, {"first_name"=>"Noriko", "last_name"=>"Okamoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"8853518500"}, {"first_name"=>"Fabien", "last_name"=>"Burki", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191566814"}, {"first_name"=>"Rudolf H.", "last_name"=>"Scheffrahn", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004063805"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick J.", "last_name"=>"Keeling", "scopus_author_id"=>"35552607600"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875064454", "sgr"=>"84875064454", "pui"=>"368539591", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23526991", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0058509"}, "id"=>"86f58817-c2a6-3fe1-8b79-912f1509ea5b", "abstract"=>"The parabasalian symbionts of lower termite hindgut communities are well-known for their large size and structural complexity. The most complex forms evolved multiple times independently from smaller and simpler flagellates, but we know little of the diversity of these small flagellates or their phylogenetic relationships to more complex lineages. To understand the true diversity of Parabasalia and how their unique cellular complexity arose, more data from smaller and simpler flagellates are needed. Here, we describe two new genera of small-to-intermediate size and complexity, represented by the type species Cthulhu macrofasciculumque and Cthylla microfasciculumque from Prorhinotermes simplex and Reticulitermes virginicus, respectively (both hosts confirmed by DNA barcoding). Both genera have a single anterior nucleus embeded in a robust protruding axostyle, and an anterior bundle flagella (and likely a single posterior flagellum) that emerge slightly subanteriorly and have a distinctive beat pattern. Cthulhu is relatively large and has a distinctive bundle of over 20 flagella whereas Cthylla is smaller, has only 5 anterior flagella and closely resembles several other parababsalian genera. Molecular phylogenies based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) show both genera are related to previously unidentified environmental sequences from other termites (possibly from members of the Tricercomitidae), which all branch as sisters to the Hexamastigitae. Altogether, Cthulhu likely represents another independent origin of relatively high cellular complexity within parabasalia, and points to the need for molecular characterization of other key taxa, such as Tricercomitus.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cthulhu-macrofasciculumque-n-g-n-sp-cthylla-microfasciculumque-n-g-n-sp-newly-identified-lineage-par", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990311"], "description"=>"<p>(A) SEM showing overall characteristics of Cthulhu, including the posteriorly protruding axostyle and subanterior emergence of a bundle of flagella. Because they are bundled an exact number is hard to conclude, but 20 distinct flagella can be counted in this picture and in (B), which is a detailed view of the flagellar emergence. This flagellar bundle has an elongated shape, but others (e.g., G) appear rounded. (C & D) LM showing the overall body plan of the cell, including the pointed protruding axostyle which extends to the slightly subanterior flagellar emergence point where the single nucleus is situated (not shown), and the flagellar bundle. (E–H) Various views of the flagellar bundle and its emergence point in different cells and at different stages of the flagellar beat. It may appear as a single tight bundle projecting foraward (H), dissociated and trailing (D & E), and the emergence of the bundle may appear rounded (F & G) or band-like (E). In many views striations beneath the surface where the flagella emerge are visible (C & H). All scale bars are 10 µm except (B), which is 2 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differential", "interference", "microscopy", "scanning", "electron"], "article_id"=>654477, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Erick R. James", "Noriko Okamoto", "Fabien Burki", "Rudolf H. Scheffrahn", "Patrick J. Keeling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_Cthulhu_macrofasciculumque_by_differential_interference_contrast_light_microscopy_LM_and_scanning_electron_microscopy_SEM_/654477", "title"=>"Morphology of <i>Cthulhu macrofasciculumque</i> by differential interference contrast light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-19 09:05:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990309"], "description"=>"<p>At the top are all available barcodes from the genus <i>Prorhinotermes</i> and below are representative barcodes from all available species of <i>Reticulitermes</i> including represenative barcodes from <i>R. virginicus</i> (22 of 33 available sequences). Isolates used in this study are indicated by black boxes. Since no <i>P. simplex</i> barcodes were available, they were generated here from samples independently isolated from Florida, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["termite", "hosts", "mitochondrial", "16s"], "article_id"=>654476, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Erick R. James", "Noriko Okamoto", "Fabien Burki", "Rudolf H. Scheffrahn", "Patrick J. Keeling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Barcode_identification_of_termite_hosts_based_on_mitochondrial_16S_LSU_rRNA_/654476", "title"=>"Barcode identification of termite hosts based on mitochondrial 16S (LSU) rRNA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-19 09:04:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990334", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990335", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990336"], "description"=>"<div><p>The parabasalian symbionts of lower termite hindgut communities are well-known for their large size and structural complexity. The most complex forms evolved multiple times independently from smaller and simpler flagellates, but we know little of the diversity of these small flagellates or their phylogenetic relationships to more complex lineages. To understand the true diversity of Parabasalia and how their unique cellular complexity arose, more data from smaller and simpler flagellates are needed. Here, we describe two new genera of small-to-intermediate size and complexity, represented by the type species <i>Cthulhu macrofasciculumque</i> and <i>Cthylla microfasciculumque</i> from <i>Prorhinotermes simplex</i> and <i>Reticulitermes virginicus</i>, respectively (both hosts confirmed by DNA barcoding). Both genera have a single anterior nucleus embeded in a robust protruding axostyle, and an anterior bundle flagella (and likely a single posterior flagellum) that emerge slightly subanteriorly and have a distinctive beat pattern. <i>Cthulhu</i> is relatively large and has a distinctive bundle of over 20 flagella whereas <i>Cthylla</i> is smaller, has only 5 anterior flagella and closely resembles several other parababsalian genera. Molecular phylogenies based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) show both genera are related to previously unidentified environmental sequences from other termites (possibly from members of the Tricercomitidae), which all branch as sisters to the Hexamastigitae. Altogether, <i>Cthulhu</i> likely represents another independent origin of relatively high cellular complexity within parabasalia, and points to the need for molecular characterization of other key taxa, such as <i>Tricercomitus</i>.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lineage", "parabasalian", "termite", "symbionts"], "article_id"=>654485, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Erick R. James", "Noriko Okamoto", "Fabien Burki", "Rudolf H. Scheffrahn", "Patrick J. Keeling"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>108, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cthulhu_Macrofasciculumque_n_g_n_sp_and_Cthylla_Microfasciculumque_n_g_n_sp_a_Newly_Identified_Lineage_of_Parabasalian_Termite_Symbionts__/654485", "title"=>"<em>Cthulhu Macrofasciculumque</em> n. g., n. sp. and <em>Cthylla Microfasciculumque</em> n. g., n. sp., a Newly Identified Lineage of Parabasalian Termite Symbionts", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-03-19 09:09:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990328"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Overall body plan of Cthylla cells showing shape and size, a posteriorly protruding axostyle and subanterior emergence of flagellar bundle. Flagella typically bundle during the forward stroke of the flagellar beat but even then dissociate at the tips (A–C). In the backstroke, the bundle substantially dissociates (D–E). When dissociated, five anterior flagella can be seen consistently (B and clustered arrowheads in C), and in many views a single recurrent flagellum is also evident around the axostyle protrusion (A & lone arrowhead in C). (F &G). Low magnification of a small flagellate observed in <i>Heterotermes tenuis</i> with a small bundle of anterior flagella and a robust protruding axostyle similar to those of <i>Cthylla</i>. According to molecular surveys <i>H. tenuis</i> harbours the closest known relative of <i>Cthulhu</i>, and we predict that the environmental sequence is derived from this flagellate. All scale bars are 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differential", "interference"], "article_id"=>654479, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Erick R. James", "Noriko Okamoto", "Fabien Burki", "Rudolf H. Scheffrahn", "Patrick J. Keeling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_Cthylla_microfasciculumque_by_differential_interference_contrast_light_microscopy_/654479", "title"=>"Morphology of <i>Cthylla microfasciculumque</i> by differential interference contrast light microscopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-19 09:06:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990329"], "description"=>"<p>Bayesian tree with posterior probabilities (upper) and maximum likelihood bootstraps (lower) indicated for each node, and major identified groups named to the right. <i>Cthulhu</i> and <i>Cthylla</i> are both related to unidentified environmental sequences from <i>Heterotermes tenuis</i> and <i>Reticulitermes chinensis</i>, respectively. They are all closely related to a large clade of unidentified environmental sequences from <i>Cryptotermes</i>, <i>Glyptotermes</i>, and <i>Calcaritermes</i>, which has previously been hypothesized to represent <i>Tricercomitus</i>. If true, then Cthulhu and Cthylla would be best considered members of the Tricercomitidae, thought this will depend on molecular characterization for this group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>654480, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Erick R. James", "Noriko Okamoto", "Fabien Burki", "Rudolf H. Scheffrahn", "Patrick J. Keeling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_between_Cthulhu_Cthylla_environmental_sequences_and_closely_related_parabasalians_/654480", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships between <i>Cthulhu</i>, <i>Cthylla</i>, environmental sequences, and closely related parabasalians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-19 09:07:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/990314"], "description"=>"<p>Stills are every second frame of video shot at 30 frames per second.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flagellar", "cytoplasmic", "undulation"], "article_id"=>654478, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Erick R. James", "Noriko Okamoto", "Fabien Burki", "Rudolf H. Scheffrahn", "Patrick J. Keeling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058509.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>213, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_time_series_showing_the_flagellar_beat_pattern_characteristic_of_Cthulhu_macrofasciculumque_both_with_a_cytoplasmic_undulation_top_rows_and_without_bottom_rows_/654478", "title"=>"Two time series showing the flagellar beat pattern characteristic of <i>Cthulhu macrofasciculumque</i> both with a cytoplasmic undulation (top rows) and without (bottom rows).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-19 09:06:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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