Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis
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{"title"=>"Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Justin A.", "last_name"=>"Georgi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35885560600"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin S.", "last_name"=>"Sipla", "scopus_author_id"=>"24470803700"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine A.", "last_name"=>"Forster", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201641486"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874910321", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0058517", "sgr"=>"84874910321", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23516495", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368518454"}, "id"=>"bb6c3c8b-7519-311b-965d-125dabd9aaf2", "abstract"=>"Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/turning-semicircular-canal-function-head-dinosaurs-novel-vestibular-analysis", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/985681"], "description"=>"<p>Anterior semicircular canal (ASC) in (A) <i>Psittacosaurus</i> and (B) <i>Stegosaurus</i> scaled to equivalent relative head size using the allometric factor common to the two functional groups. Although the ASC in the small-bodied biped, <i>Psittacosaurus</i>, is absolutely smaller than in the larger quadruped, <i>Stegosaurus</i>, when the canal systems are scaled as seen here, it is shown that the biped has a markedly larger relative canal. Scale = 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anterior", "semicircular", "canal", "bipedal", "quadrupedal"], "article_id"=>650944, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Justin A. Georgi", "Justin S. Sipla", "Catherine A. Forster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_anterior_semicircular_canal_size_in_bipedal_and_quadrupedal_dinosaurs_/650944", "title"=>"Relative anterior semicircular canal size in bipedal and quadrupedal dinosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 08:07:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1006955"], "description"=>"<p>In all cases except the skull length correlation with the PSC in bipedal dinosaurs, both the head size correlations represent increases in the correlation coefficient above that for the body mass estimates. The increases in correlation coefficient for the quadrupedal taxa are substantially larger than those of the bipedal taxa. With the ASC data, this increase in the quadrupedal correlation includes changing from a non-significant correlation with body mass to a significant correlation with both head size metrics. The PSC-head mass correlation is nearly significant (critical value of 0.754). Between the head size metrics, head mass produces stronger correlations than skull length in the vertical canals except for the quadrupedal PSC correlations (see discussion). In contrast, however, the LSC correlations for both bipedal and quadrupedal groups are stronger with the skull length than head mass, suggesting that skull length is more functionally significant for the LSC than either of the vertical canals. ASC: anterior semicircular canal, PSC: posterior semicircular canal, and LSC: lateral semicircular canal. *- indicates a significant correlation at the p = 0.05 level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "semicircular", "canal", "estimates", "bipedal", "quadrupedal"], "article_id"=>667579, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Justin A. Georgi", "Justin S. Sipla", "Catherine A. Forster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pearson_correlation_coefficients_between_semicircular_canal_area_and_mass_estimates_and_skull_length_for_bipedal_and_quadrupedal_dinosaurs_/667579", "title"=>"Pearson correlation coefficients between semicircular canal area and mass estimates and skull length for bipedal and quadrupedal dinosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-13 02:06:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/985675"], "description"=>"<p>Anterior semicircular canal (ASC) area enclosed versus (A) body mass, (B) skull length, and (C) head mass. The bipedal correlations in (A), (B), & (C) are significant and the regressions are similar in slope. Quadrupedal taxa in (A) exhibit no significant correlation in contrast to (B) and (C) where the quadrupedal correlations are significant. In (B) and (C) the slope of the quadrupedal regression is statistically similar to the bipedal slope but significantly separated from it by a decrease in intercept. The intercept difference between the bipedal and quadrupedal groups in (C) is greater in magnitude than in (B) and when combined with the much stronger correlations in (C) this comparison produces the most robust discrimination between bipedal and quadrupedal taxa. The simplicity of the head mass estimation method employed in this study results in several notable estimation errors: the head size in <i>Apatasaurus</i> (1) is over-estimated and the head sizes of the derived ceratopsians, <i>Triceratops</i> (2) and <i>Agujaceratops</i> (3) are under-estimated. In each case, more accurate head mass estimations would shift these taxa closer to the quadrupedal regression line. Solid lines: standardized major axis regressions for significant correlations, dashed lines: phylogenetically correct ordinary least square regression (PCOLS), and dotted lines: 95% confidence interval for each group around the PCOLS. •: bipeds, ▴: quadrupeds, and ▪: taxa with ambiguous posture (A: <i>Anchisaurus</i>, C: <i>Corythosaurus</i>, E: <i>Edmontosaurus</i>, and P: <i>Plateosurus</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["semicircular", "canal"], "article_id"=>650938, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Justin A. Georgi", "Justin S. Sipla", "Catherine A. Forster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anterior_semicircular_canal_size_in_dinosaurs_/650938", "title"=>"Anterior semicircular canal size in dinosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 08:05:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/985683", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/985684"], "description"=>"<div><p>Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["turning", "semicircular", "canal", "dinosaurs", "vestibular", "analysis"], "article_id"=>650946, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Justin A. Georgi", "Justin S. Sipla", "Catherine A. Forster"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Turning_Semicircular_Canal_Function_on_Its_Head_Dinosaurs_and_a_Novel_Vestibular_Analysis__/650946", "title"=>"Turning Semicircular Canal Function on Its Head: Dinosaurs and a Novel Vestibular Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 08:07:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/985678"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Posterior semicircular canal (PSC) area enclosed versus skull length, and (B) Lateral semicircular canal (LSC) area enclose versus skull length. Skull length significantly correlates with both PSC and LSC area enclosed in both bipedal and quadrupedal dinosaurs. The PSC regressions of the two groups are similar in slope and regression intercept, indicating that skull length cannot be used with PSC size to distinguish bipeds from quadrupeds. The LSC regressions of the two groups also share a common slope, but are significantly separated by regression intercept with the bipeds elevated above the quadrupeds. This separation is similar to the anterior semicircular canal (ASC) size comparison with skull length and much less robust than the ASC size comparison with estimated head mass (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517#pone-0058517-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>). Solid lines: standardized major axis regressions for significant correlations, dashed lines: phylogenetically correct ordinary least square regression (PCOLS), and dotted lines: 95% confidence interval for each group around the PCOLS. •: bipeds, ▴: quadrupeds, and ▪: taxa with ambiguous posture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lateral", "semicircular", "canal"], "article_id"=>650941, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Justin A. Georgi", "Justin S. Sipla", "Catherine A. Forster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posterior_and_lateral_semicircular_canal_size_with_respect_to_skull_length_/650941", "title"=>"Posterior and lateral semicircular canal size with respect to skull length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 08:06:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/985671"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Multiple points, each representing the centroid of a section through the slender portion of the canal, are manually digitized. (B) A best fit plane through these points is calculated using principal components. (C) Parameters of a canny edge-finding algorithm are manually adjusted to ensure maximal automatic edge reconstruction on the best fit plane image. Any missing sections of the canal edges are reconstructed using linear interpolation for small sections and replication of the complimentary edge for larger sections. (D) An average midline path between the internal and external canal edges is calculated to represent the course of the membranous duct. The area enclosed by this average path is used as the canal size metric in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["midline", "estimation"], "article_id"=>650937, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Justin A. Georgi", "Justin S. Sipla", "Catherine A. Forster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Canal_midline_estimation_method_/650937", "title"=>"Canal midline estimation method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 08:04:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/985667"], "description"=>"<p>Calibrated phylogeny of the twenty-six non-avian dinosaur taxa examined in this study <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517#pone.0058517-Butler1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517#pone.0058517-Smith1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>. Head size relative to body size varies broadly across dinosaurs with extremes ranging from the small-headed sauropods to the large-headed ceratopsids. Black lines: bipeds, gray lines: quadrupeds, and dashed lines: contentious primary locomotor types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>650935, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Justin A. Georgi", "Justin S. Sipla", "Catherine A. Forster"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058517.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Specimen_phylogeny_/650935", "title"=>"Specimen phylogeny.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-14 08:04:11"}

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Relative Metric

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