Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem
Publication Date
March 27, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Marie Hélène Truchon, Lena Measures, Vincent L’hérault, Jean Claude Brêthes, et al
Volume
8
Issue
3
Pages
e59311
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059311
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23544059
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609766
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23544059
Web of Science
000317480700021
Scopus
84875467033
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/marine-mammal-strandings-environmental-changes-15year-study-st-lawrence-ecosystem
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marie Hélène", "last_name"=>"Truchon", "scopus_author_id"=>"55905939900"}, {"first_name"=>"Lena", "last_name"=>"Measures", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003663337"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincent", "last_name"=>"L'Hérault", "scopus_author_id"=>"55905588500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Claude", "last_name"=>"Brêthes", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602524713"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter S.", "last_name"=>"Galbraith", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005600988"}, {"first_name"=>"Michel", "last_name"=>"Harvey", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202676148"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvie", "last_name"=>"Lessard", "scopus_author_id"=>"55632659100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michel", "last_name"=>"Starr", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103367641"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Lecomte", "scopus_author_id"=>"35783170300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84875467033", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0059311", "pui"=>"368602320", "pmid"=>"23544059", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875467033", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"bcddb5cd-1c41-3dc1-9f9b-ef664b308bb4", "abstract"=>"Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising step in integrating stranding records to monitor the consequences of environmental changes in marine ecosystems over long time scales.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/marine-mammal-strandings-environmental-changes-15year-study-st-lawrence-ecosystem", "reader_count"=>91, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Other"=>11, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Other"=>11, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Energy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Iceland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/999353"], "description"=>"<p>Black solid lines are possible effects of regional parameters and dashed lines are possible indirect effects of continental parameters identified in this study, while grey lines are additional effects previously reported in the literature (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311#pone-0059311-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stranding", "mammals", "estuary", "gulf"], "article_id"=>661331, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_framework_showing_how_environmental_parameters_may_affect_stranding_events_of_marine_mammals_in_the_Estuary_and_the_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_Qu_233_bec_Canada_/661331", "title"=>"Conceptual framework showing how environmental parameters may affect stranding events of marine mammals in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec, Canada.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-28 09:02:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/999355"], "description"=>"<p>(A) All reported marine mammal stranding events (1994–2008), (B) stranding events reported only during the harmful algal bloom of 2008, and (C) stranding events of pagophilic seals only (1994–2008). Marine mammal groups used in analyses are defined in Table S2 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311#pone.0059311.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mammal", "stranding", "estuary", "gulf"], "article_id"=>661333, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_area_and_distribution_of_marine_mammal_stranding_events_in_the_Estuary_and_the_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_Qu_233_bec_Canada_1994_8211_2008_/661333", "title"=>"Study area and distribution of marine mammal stranding events in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec, Canada, 1994–2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-28 09:02:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/999358"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Mysticetes, (B) odontocetes and (C) seal species in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada, 1994–2008. Letters over the bars indicate statistical differences (see methods); bars with different letters are statistically different at 5% level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variability", "mammal", "stranding", "estuary", "gulf"], "article_id"=>661336, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seasonal_variability_in_the_mean_number_of_marine_mammal_stranding_events_in_the_Estuary_and_the_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_Qu_233_bec_Canada_1994_8211_2008_/661336", "title"=>"Seasonal variability in the mean number of marine mammal stranding events in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec, Canada, 1994–2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-28 09:02:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/999359"], "description"=>"<p>The time series are de-trended (see methods) to indicate inter-annual variation rather than long-term changes and remove any potential bias due to increased observation reports over the years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mammal", "stranding", "estuary", "gulf"], "article_id"=>661337, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inter_annual_variation_of_marine_mammal_stranding_events_in_the_Estuary_and_the_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_Qu_233_bec_Canada_1994_8211_2008_/661337", "title"=>"Inter-annual variation of marine mammal stranding events in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec, Canada, 1994–2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-28 09:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/999360"], "description"=>"<p>Retrospective variations of ice cover volume, CIL volume in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and krill abundance in the St. Lawrence Estuary (1994 to 2008), Québec, Canada.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variations", "cil", "gulf", "krill", "abundance", "lawrence", "estuary"], "article_id"=>661338, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Retrospective_variations_of_ice_cover_volume_CIL_volume_in_the_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_and_krill_abundance_in_the_St_Lawrence_Estuary_1994_to_2008_Qu_233_bec_Canada_/661338", "title"=>"Retrospective variations of ice cover volume, CIL volume in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and krill abundance in the St. Lawrence Estuary (1994 to 2008), Québec, Canada.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-28 09:03:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/999361"], "description"=>"<div><p>Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994–2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (<i>e.g.</i> R<sup>2</sup><sub>adj</sub> = 0.59, hooded seal, <i>Cystophora cristata</i>). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, <i>Balaenoptera acutorostrata</i>) and resident species (beluga, <i>Delphinapterus leucas</i>), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R<sup>2</sup><sub>adj</sub> = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising step in integrating stranding records to monitor the consequences of environmental changes in marine ecosystems over long time scales.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mammal", "strandings", "15-year", "lawrence"], "article_id"=>661339, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Marine_Mammal_Strandings_and_Environmental_Changes_A_15_Year_Study_in_the_St_Lawrence_Ecosystem_/661339", "title"=>"Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-28 09:03:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1008358"], "description"=>"<p>This table is limited to selected citations given as examples, and does not constitute an exhaustive review of the literature. This table can be linked to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311#pone-0059311-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig.1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["documenting", "linkages", "mammals"], "article_id"=>668978, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Studies_documenting_ecological_linkages_between_marine_mammals_and_environmental_changes_/668978", "title"=>"Studies documenting ecological linkages between marine mammals and environmental changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-27 02:29:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1008382"], "description"=>"a<p>Parameters in most parsimonious models : sea surface temperature (SST, °C), cold intermediate layer volume at 0 °C (Vol0, km<sup>3</sup>), ice cover volume residuals (resICEV, Km<sup>3</sup>), freshwater runoff (FWR, 10<sup>3 </sup>m<sup>3</sup>s<sup>−1</sup>), abundance of krill (Krilla, ind. m<sup>−3</sup>), abundance of harmful toxic algae (TA, cell L<sup>−1</sup>), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, NAO index of the previous year (NAO <sub>t–1</sub>) and NAO index of the previous winter (NAO<sub>wt–1</sub>).</p>b<p>Resident species is beluga whale (<i>Delphinapterus leucas</i>, Dl),</p>c<p>Seasonal migrant species are Harbour porpoise (<i>Phocoena phocoena</i>, Pp), Atlantic White-sided dolphin (<i>Lagenorhynchus acutus</i>, La), Minke whale (<i>Balaenoptera acutorostrata</i>, Ba) and Grey seal (<i>Halichoerus grypus</i>, Hg),</p>d<p>Pagophilic species is Hooded seal (<i>Cystophora cristata</i>, Cc) and,</p>e<p>Seal and</p>f<p>Rare species as listed in Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311#pone.0059311.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>. Δp<0.1; *p<0.05; **p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["linear", "regression", "coefficients", "tested", "predictors", "inter-annual", "mammal", "stranding", "estuary", "gulf"], "article_id"=>669000, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Marie-Hélène Truchon", "Lena Measures", "Vincent L’Hérault", "Jean-Claude Brêthes", "Peter S. Galbraith", "Michel Harvey", "Sylvie Lessard", "Michel Starr", "Nicolas Lecomte"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059311.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_linear_regression_model_coefficients_for_environmental_parameters_tested_as_predictors_of_inter_annual_variation_in_marine_mammal_stranding_events_in_the_Estuary_and_the_Gulf_of_St_Lawrence_Qu_233_bec_Canada_1994_8722_2008_/669000", "title"=>"Multiple linear regression model coefficients for environmental parameters tested as predictors of inter-annual variation in marine mammal stranding events in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec, Canada, 1994−2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-27 02:30:00"}

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Relative Metric

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