Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness and Propulsive Work of the Human Ankle in the Stance Phase of Walking
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{"title"=>"Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness and Propulsive Work of the Human Ankle in the Stance Phase of Walking", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kamran", "last_name"=>"Shamaei", "scopus_author_id"=>"26423356500"}, {"first_name"=>"Gregory S.", "last_name"=>"Sawicki", "scopus_author_id"=>"8343261600"}, {"first_name"=>"Aaron M.", "last_name"=>"Dollar", "scopus_author_id"=>"8637648600"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875317694", "pui"=>"368580148", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0059935", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84875317694", "pmid"=>"23555839"}, "id"=>"a766f12a-740c-392a-a3e6-623a5c419b27", "abstract"=>"Characterizing the quasi-stiffness and work of lower extremity joints is critical for evaluating human locomotion and designing assistive devices such as prostheses and orthoses intended to emulate the biological behavior of human legs. This work aims to establish statistical models that allow us to predict the ankle quasi-stiffness and net mechanical work for adults walking on level ground. During the stance phase of walking, the ankle joint propels the body through three distinctive phases of nearly constant stiffness known as the quasi-stiffness of each phase. Using a generic equation for the ankle moment obtained through an inverse dynamics analysis, we identify key independent parameters needed to predict ankle quasi-stiffness and propulsive work and also the functional form of each correlation. These parameters include gait speed, ankle excursion, and subject height and weight. Based on the identified form of the correlation and key variables, we applied linear regression on experimental walking data for 216 gait trials across 26 subjects (speeds from 0.75-2.63 m/s) to obtain statistical models of varying complexity. The most general forms of the statistical models include all the key parameters and have an R(2) of 75% to 81% in the prediction of the ankle quasi-stiffnesses and propulsive work. The most specific models include only subject height and weight and could predict the ankle quasi-stiffnesses and work for optimal walking speed with average error of 13% to 30%. We discuss how these models provide a useful framework and foundation for designing subject- and gait-specific prosthetic and exoskeletal devices designed to emulate biological ankle function during level ground walking.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/estimation-quasistiffness-propulsive-work-human-ankle-stance-phase-walking", "reader_count"=>94, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>55, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>9, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>55}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>9}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/994114"], "description"=>"<p>Letters a-f on the graph correspond to the poses schematically shown during a typical walking cycle (top, schematic timing is adapted from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935#pone.0059935-Rose1\" target=\"_blank\">[69]</a>). Quasi-stiffness is calculated based on the slope of the best-line fit to the moment-angle curve of b-c for the dorsi-flexion (), c-d for the dual-flexion (), and d-e for the plantar-flexion () phases of the progression period (b-e). The area enclosed by the graph represents the propulsion work of the ankle (). The joint excursion in each phase is the difference between the ankle relative angle at the onset and end of that phase (i.e. , and </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>657332, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ankle_moment_vs_relative_angle_curve_for_a_representative_subject_walking_at_1_75_m_s_/657332", "title"=>"Ankle moment vs. relative angle curve for a representative subject walking at 1.75 <i>m/s</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-22 06:02:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/994116"], "description"=>"<p>The circles indicate the experimental value and the diamonds are the predictions of the general-form models of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935#pone-0059935-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quasi-stiffnesses", "dorsi-flexion", "dual-flexion", "plantar-flexion", "propulsive", "plotted", "gait", "10"], "article_id"=>657333, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ankle_quasi_stiffnesses_N_m_rad_in_dorsi_flexion_top_left_dual_flexion_top_right_and_plantar_flexion_bottom_left_phases_and_propulsive_work_J_in_stance_bottom_tight_plotted_against_gait_speed_for_subject_10_as_an_example_/657333", "title"=>"Ankle quasi-stiffnesses (<i>N.m/rad</i>) in dorsi-flexion (top-left), dual-flexion (top-right), and plantar-flexion (bottom-left) phases, and propulsive work (<i>J</i>) in stance (bottom-tight) plotted against gait speed for subject 10 as an example.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-22 06:03:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/994117"], "description"=>"<p>The experimental values are shown by circles, the predictions of the general-form models by diamonds, and the stature-based models with squares. To avoid suppressing the rest of the data, the arrows are included on the top-right graph to indicate the values that are dramatically higher than the rest of the data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quasi-stiffnesses", "dorsi-flexion", "dual-flexion", "plantar-flexion", "propulsive", "plotted", "subjects", "preferred", "gait"], "article_id"=>657334, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ankle_quasi_stiffnesses_N_m_rad_in_dorsi_flexion_top_left_dual_flexion_top_right_and_plantar_flexion_bottom_left_phases_and_propulsive_work_J_in_stance_bottom_tight_plotted_for_different_subjects_walking_at_a_speed_closest_to_the_preferred_gait_speed_/657334", "title"=>"Ankle quasi-stiffnesses (<i>N.m/rad</i>) in dorsi-flexion (top-left), dual-flexion (top-right), and plantar-flexion (bottom-left) phases, and propulsive work (<i>J</i>) in stance (bottom-tight) plotted for different subjects walking at a speed closest to the preferred gait speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-22 06:03:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/994118", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/994120", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/994121"], "description"=>"<div><p>Characterizing the quasi-stiffness and work of lower extremity joints is critical for evaluating human locomotion and designing assistive devices such as prostheses and orthoses intended to emulate the biological behavior of human legs. This work aims to establish statistical models that allow us to predict the ankle quasi-stiffness and net mechanical work for adults walking on level ground. During the stance phase of walking, the ankle joint propels the body through three distinctive phases of nearly constant stiffness known as the quasi-stiffness of each phase. Using a generic equation for the ankle moment obtained through an inverse dynamics analysis, we identify key independent parameters needed to predict ankle quasi-stiffness and propulsive work and also the functional form of each correlation. These parameters include gait speed, ankle excursion, and subject height and weight. Based on the identified form of the correlation and key variables, we applied linear regression on experimental walking data for <i>216</i> gait trials across <i>26</i> subjects (speeds from <i>0.75–2.63 m/s</i>) to obtain statistical models of varying complexity. The most general forms of the statistical models include all the key parameters and have an R<sup>2</sup> of <i>75%</i> to <i>81%</i> in the prediction of the ankle quasi-stiffnesses and propulsive work. The most specific models include only subject height and weight and could predict the ankle quasi-stiffnesses and work for optimal walking speed with average error of <i>13%</i> to <i>30%</i>. We discuss how these models provide a useful framework and foundation for designing subject- and gait-specific prosthetic and exoskeletal devices designed to emulate biological ankle function during level ground walking.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "quasi-stiffness", "propulsive", "walking"], "article_id"=>657335, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Estimation_of_Quasi_Stiffness_and_Propulsive_Work_of_the_Human_Ankle_in_the_Stance_Phase_of_Walking__/657335", "title"=>"Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness and Propulsive Work of the Human Ankle in the Stance Phase of Walking", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-03-22 06:03:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1007836"], "description"=>"<p>: Body weight (kg), and : Body height (m).</p><p> and : Minimum and maximum gait speed (m/s).</p><p> and : Minimum and maximum quasi-stiffness in dorsi-flexion phase (Nm/rad).</p><p> and : Minimum and maximum quasi-stiffness in dual flexion phase (Nm/rad).</p><p> and : Minimum and maximum quasi-stiffness in plantar-flexion phase (Nm/rad).</p><p> and : Minimum and maximum propulsion energy (J).</p><p>, , and : Average of the linear fit on moment-angle curve in dorsi-flexion, dual-flexion, and plantar-flexion phases.</p>‡<p>Data collected at Human PoWeR Lab, NC State University <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935#pone.0059935-Farris1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>.</p>†<p>Data collected at Biomechanics Lab, East Carolina University <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935#pone.0059935-Hortobgyi1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>.</p><p>•Data collected at Laboratory of Biomedical Technologies at Politecnico Di Milano.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subjects", "trials", "regression"], "article_id"=>668459, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_on_Subjects_and_Experimental_Trials_used_for_Regression_Fits_/668459", "title"=>"Details on Subjects and Experimental Trials used for Regression Fits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-21 02:20:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1007852"], "description"=>"<p>Stature-Based Models to Predict the Quasi-Stiffness and Work of the Ankle Joint for Walking at the Optimal Gait Speed on Level Ground.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quasi-stiffness", "optimal", "gait"], "article_id"=>668478, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stature_Based_Models_to_Predict_the_Quasi_Stiffness_and_Work_of_the_Ankle_Joint_for_Walking_at_the_Optimal_Gait_Speed_on_Level_Ground_/668478", "title"=>"Stature-Based Models to Predict the Quasi-Stiffness and Work of the Ankle Joint for Walking at the Optimal Gait Speed on Level Ground.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-21 02:21:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1007869"], "description"=>"<p>General-Form Models to Predict the Quasi-Stiffness and Work of the Ankle Joint for Level Ground Walking.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quasi-stiffness"], "article_id"=>668495, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_Form_Models_to_Predict_the_Quasi_Stiffness_and_Work_of_the_Ankle_Joint_for_Level_Ground_Walking_/668495", "title"=>"General-Form Models to Predict the Quasi-Stiffness and Work of the Ankle Joint for Level Ground Walking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-21 02:21:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1007884"], "description"=>"<p>Average Error Values for Different Models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>668512, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kamran Shamaei", "Gregory S. Sawicki", "Aaron M. Dollar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059935.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_Error_Values_for_Different_Models_/668512", "title"=>"Average Error Values for Different Models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-21 02:21:52"}

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Relative Metric

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