Examining the Extinction of the Barbary Lion and Its Implications for Felid Conservation
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{"title"=>"Examining the Extinction of the Barbary Lion and Its Implications for Felid Conservation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Simon A.", "last_name"=>"Black", "scopus_author_id"=>"26640926500"}, {"first_name"=>"Amina", "last_name"=>"Fellous", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004346471"}, {"first_name"=>"Nobuyuki", "last_name"=>"Yamaguchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402846932"}, {"first_name"=>"David L.", "last_name"=>"Roberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"55465525500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368649196", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0060174", "sgr"=>"84875705599", "pmid"=>"23573239", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875705599"}, "id"=>"a1e91110-42d6-3953-8a3c-04e5f1c37f8f", "abstract"=>"Estimations of species extinction dates are rarely definitive, yet declarations of extinction or extirpation are important as they define when conservation efforts may cease. Erroneous declarations of extinctions not only destabilize conservation efforts but also corrode local community support. Mismatches in perceptions by the scientific and local communities risk undermining sensitive, but important partnerships. We examine observations relating to the decline and extinction of Barbary lions in North Africa. Whilst the extinction predates the era of the scientific conservation movement, the decline is relatively well documented in historical records. Recently unearthed accounts suggest Barbary lions survived later than previously assumed. We use probabilistic methods to estimate a more recent extinction date for the subspecies. The evidence presented for a much later persistence of lions in North Africa, including generations when sightings were nil, suggests caution when considering felid populations as extinct in the wild. The case raises the possibility that captive animals descended from the Moroccan royal collection are closer contemporaries to wild Barbary lions. Furthermore, our results highlight the vulnerability of very small lion populations and the significance of continued conservation of remnant lion populations in Central and West Africa.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/examining-extinction-barbary-lion-implications-felid-conservation", "reader_count"=>46, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1009366"], "description"=>"<p>NP = one of several National Parks established across the region in the 1980s–1990s.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Population ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Species extinction", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "sightings", "maghreb", "algeria", "saharan"], "article_id"=>669957, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon A. Black", "Amina Fellous", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "David L. Roberts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lion_sightings_in_the_eastern_Maghreb_of_Algeria_and_Tunisia_1861_8211_1880_Ksour_Mountains_Saharan_Atlas_Tell_Atlas_Ouled_Nail_Aur_232_s_Mountains_/669957", "title"=>"Lion sightings in the eastern Maghreb of Algeria and Tunisia, 1861–1880 (Ksour Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tell Atlas, Ouled-Nail, Aurès Mountains).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-03 02:45:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1009367"], "description"=>"<p>NP = one of several National Parks established across the region in the 1980s–1990s.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Population ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Species extinction", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "sightings", "maghreb", "algeria", "saharan"], "article_id"=>669958, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon A. Black", "Amina Fellous", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "David L. Roberts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lion_sightings_in_the_eastern_Maghreb_of_Algeria_and_Tunisia_1881_8211_1900_Ksour_Mountains_Saharan_Atlas_Tell_Atlas_Ouled_Nail_Aur_232_s_Mountains_/669958", "title"=>"Lion sightings in the eastern Maghreb of Algeria and Tunisia, 1881–1900 (Ksour Mountains, Saharan Atlas, Tell Atlas, Ouled-Nail, Aurès Mountains).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-03 02:45:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1009351"], "description"=>"<p>Grey shading indicates Mediterranean scrubland ecosystems <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone.0060174-Dobson1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>. Earliest accounts in the western Maghreb from 16<sup>th</sup> to the 18<sup>th</sup> century are indicated as open circles <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone.0060174-Guggisberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone.0060174-Cabrera1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>. Documented sightings in known years from 1800 to 1900 are indicated as black circular markers in the western Maghreb (1–7 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone-0060174-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>); triangular markers indicate sightings in eastern Maghreb (22–133 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone-0060174-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 2</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone-0060174-t006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a>). Asterisks (*) denote locations of human population centers. Dashed lines indicate national boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Population ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Species extinction", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "reports", "lions", "africa"], "article_id"=>669943, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon A. Black", "Amina Fellous", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "David L. Roberts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_historical_reports_of_lions_in_North_Africa_AD_1500_8211_1900_/669943", "title"=>"Distribution of historical reports of lions in North Africa (AD 1500–1900).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-03 02:45:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1009355"], "description"=>"<p>Grey shading indicates Mediterranean scrubland ecosystems <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone.0060174-Dobson1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>. Circular markers indicate sightings in western Maghreb (8–21 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone-0060174-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>); triangular markers indicate sightings in eastern Maghreb (134–149) from incidents described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone-0060174-t006\" target=\"_blank\">Table 6</a>. The dotted line indicates the air route across the Atlas Mountains (Casablanca-Agadir-Dakar) during which the last wild lion was photographed. Asterisks (*) denote locations of human population centers. Dashed lines indicate national boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Population ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Species extinction", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "sightings", "lions", "africa"], "article_id"=>669947, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon A. Black", "Amina Fellous", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "David L. Roberts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_recent_sightings_of_lions_in_North_Africa_AD_1900_8211_1960_/669947", "title"=>"Distribution of recent sightings of lions in North Africa (AD 1900–1960).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-03 02:45:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1009357"], "description"=>"<p>The photograph taken by Marcelin Flandrin in 1925 is the last visual record of a wild ‘Barbary’ lion of North Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Population ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Species extinction", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "seen", "atlas", "casablanca-dakar"], "article_id"=>669949, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon A. Black", "Amina Fellous", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "David L. Roberts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>276, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_lion_seen_in_the_Atlas_Mountains_during_a_flight_on_the_Casablanca_Dakar_air_route_/669949", "title"=>"A lion seen in the Atlas Mountains, during a flight on the Casablanca-Dakar air route.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-03 02:45:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1009359"], "description"=>"<p>Grey boxes indicate estimated lion generations based on suggestions by: (a) Packer et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone.0060174-Davies1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>, and (b) Hemmer <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone.0060174-Hemmer1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>. Black boxes are the five known generations in the European studbook <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174#pone.0060174-Black1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a> since the 1974 survey at Temara Zoo. Generational positions for two studbook maternal lines are illustrated for a female cub (white box) born to studbook female 270, and a young male (267) born to female 230, tracing to founder females 37 and 21 respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Conservation science", "Population ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "Species extinction", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "captive", "generations", "africa", "moroccan"], "article_id"=>669951, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Simon A. Black", "Amina Fellous", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "David L. Roberts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060174.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_captive_generations_since_wild_collection_in_North_Africa_for_current_Moroccan_Royal_lions_/669951", "title"=>"Estimates of captive generations since wild collection in North Africa for current Moroccan Royal lions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-03 02:45:51"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[284, 475, 603, 722, 826, 928, 1026, 1129, 1225, 1310, 1390, 1468, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Conservation science", "average_usage"=>[390, 618, 766, 904, 1030, 1153, 1268, 1391, 1487, 1591, 1685, 1767, 1865]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Species extinction", "average_usage"=>[402, 609]}]}
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