Modeling Consonant-Vowel Coarticulation for Articulatory Speech Synthesis
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{"title"=>"Modeling Consonant-Vowel Coarticulation for Articulatory Speech Synthesis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Birkholz", "scopus_author_id"=>"23395660400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876189343", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0060603", "sgr"=>"84876189343", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23613734", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368726764"}, "id"=>"62d2d038-c740-3ebe-8b89-562b2bcf9056", "abstract"=>"A central challenge for articulatory speech synthesis is the simulation of realistic articulatory movements, which is critical for the generation of highly natural and intelligible speech. This includes modeling coarticulation, i.e., the context-dependent variation of the articulatory and acoustic realization of phonemes, especially of consonants. Here we propose a method to simulate the context-sensitive articulation of consonants in consonant-vowel syllables. To achieve this, the vocal tract target shape of a consonant in the context of a given vowel is derived as the weighted average of three measured and acoustically-optimized reference vocal tract shapes for that consonant in the context of the corner vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/. The weights are determined by mapping the target shape of the given context vowel into the vowel subspace spanned by the corner vowels. The model was applied for the synthesis of consonant-vowel syllables with the consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, /l/, /r/, /m/, /n/ in all combinations with the eight long German vowels. In a perception test, the mean recognition rate for the consonants in the isolated syllables was 82.4%. This demonstrates the potential of the approach for highly intelligible articulatory speech synthesis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/modeling-consonantvowel-coarticulation-articulatory-speech-synthesis", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>18, "Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>10, "Linguistics"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>18}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>10}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Japan"=>2, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025096"], "description"=>"<p>The ASCII-based speech sound symbols (SAMPA) and the corresponding symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) for the sounds used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "ascii-based", "symbols", "corresponding", "phonetic", "alphabet", "sounds"], "article_id"=>682949, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>249, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_ASCII_based_speech_sound_symbols_SAMPA_and_the_corresponding_symbols_of_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_IPA_for_the_sounds_used_in_this_study_/682949", "title"=>"The ASCII-based speech sound symbols (SAMPA) and the corresponding symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) for the sounds used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025098"], "description"=>"<p>A: Original midsagittal image of the vocal tract for the vowel /y:/ from the volumetric MRI corpus (left), the same image with enhanced edges (middle), and the traced contours (right). B: Same as A for an image of the real-time MRI corpus showing the consonant /d/ in /a/-context. The thick dashed lines in the traced images show the outline of the tongue side. The thin dashed lines indicate the angle of the rear pharyngeal wall with respect to the hard palate, which varies between the two corpora. The traced images were rotated for an identical orientation of the hard palate. (Figure modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603#pone.0060603-Birkholz5\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "images", "mri", "corpora", "traced"], "article_id"=>682951, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_images_from_the_two_MRI_corpora_and_their_traced_contours_/682951", "title"=>"Example images from the two MRI corpora and their traced contours.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025099"], "description"=>"<p>The source shape has a dotted outline and the target shape a solid outline. Three pairs of corresponding vectors were used to define the warping. The superior and anterior vectors were identical for the source and the target shapes, keeping these parts of the vocal tract essentially equal. The posterior vector was aligned with the rear pharyngeal wall in the source shape and rotated to the required orientation for the (normalized) target shape around a common fulcrum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "tract", "normalize", "posture", "pharyngeal", "corresponding", "pairs", "vectors"], "article_id"=>682952, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Warping_of_the_vocal_tract_shape_to_normalize_the_head_posture_to_a_specific_orientation_of_the_rear_pharyngeal_wall_based_on_corresponding_pairs_of_vectors_35_/682952", "title"=>"Warping of the vocal tract shape to normalize the head posture to a specific orientation of the rear pharyngeal wall based on corresponding pairs of vectors [<b>35</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025100"], "description"=>"<p>The gray and white regions surround the long and short vowels, respectively. For each vowel, the mean formant frequencies of the analyzed samples were taken as the underlying acoustic target for the vowel according to the undershoot model <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603#pone.0060603-Lindblom2\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>. Exceptions were the vowels /2:/ and /a:/, for which the mean formant values (white squares) did not represent perceptually high-quality targets. Instead, the acoustic targets for these vowels were obtained from additionally recorded sustained /2:/ and /a:/ (white circles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "hulls", "samples", "german", "vowels", "spoken", "contexts", "formant"], "article_id"=>682953, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Convex_hulls_of_the_samples_measured_for_the_individual_German_vowels_spoken_in_different_contexts_in_the_formant_plane_/682953", "title"=>"Convex hulls of the samples measured for the individual German vowels spoken in different contexts in the formant plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025101"], "description"=>"<p>Panel A shows the transitions for /b/, /d/, and /g/, and panel B for /l/ and /r/.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "formant", "transitions", "consonants", "german", "vowels", "onset", "frequencies"], "article_id"=>682954, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>274, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stylized_formant_transitions_from_the_consonants_b_d_g_l_r_to_the_eight_long_German_vowels_of_our_reference_speaker_based_on_the_onset_and_target_formant_frequencies_given_in_Table_1_/682954", "title"=>"Stylized formant transitions from the consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, /l/, /r/ to the eight long German vowels of our reference speaker, based on the onset and target formant frequencies given in <b>Table 1</b>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025103"], "description"=>"<p>A: Rendering of the vocal tract model for the vowel /E:/. B: Wireframe representation of the model surfaces. C: Area function of the vocal tract shape in panel A used for the acoustic simulation. The area function describes the acoustically relevant variation of the cross-sectional area of the vocal tract between the glottis (at 0 cm) and the mouth opening (here at 15.5 cm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "3d"], "article_id"=>682956, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_3D_model_of_the_vocal_tract_/682956", "title"=>"The 3D model of the vocal tract.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025104"], "description"=>"<p>The shape of the velum is controlled by <i>VO</i> and <i>VS</i>. The protrusion of the lips and the vertical distance between the upper and lower lip is specified by <i>LP</i> and <i>LD</i>, respectively. The horizontal and vertical position of the hyoid is specified by <i>HX</i> and <i>HY</i>, respectively. <i>JA</i> specifies the opening angle of the jaw and the <i>JX</i> its anterior-posterior translation. The tongue body and the tongue tip are modeled as circles with the center coordinates (<i>TCX, TCY</i>) and (<i>TTX, TTY</i>), respectively. The tongue root and the tongue blade are modeled with quadratic Bézier curves. The coordinates of the central control points of these curves are given by (<i>TRX, TRY</i>) and (<i>TBX, TBY</i>). The panel at the bottom illustrates the cross-section of the tongue at a position along the midsagittal tongue contour. <i>h(t)</i> defines the elevation of the tongue sides, which is specified by the parameters <i>TS1 ... TS4</i> at four equally-spaced positions along the tongue contour. Between these positions, <i>h(t)</i> is interpolated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "tract"], "article_id"=>682957, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Areas_of_influence_of_the_vocal_tract_parameters_refer_to_Table_2_for_the_abbreviations_/682957", "title"=>"Areas of influence of the vocal tract parameters (refer to Table 2 for the abbreviations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025106"], "description"=>"<p>Midsagittal tracing of the vocal tract outline in the MRI data (gray), visually matched model contour (red), and acoustically optimized model shape (black) for the vowels /a:/, /i:/ and /u:/.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "tracing", "tract", "mri", "visually", "matched", "contour", "acoustically", "optimized", "vowels"], "article_id"=>682959, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>174, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Midsagittal_tracing_of_the_vocal_tract_outline_in_the_MRI_data_gray_visually_matched_model_contour_red_and_acoustically_optimized_model_shape_black_for_the_vowels_a_i_and_u_/682959", "title"=>"Midsagittal tracing of the vocal tract outline in the MRI data (gray), visually matched model contour (red), and acoustically optimized model shape (black) for the vowels /a:/, /i:/ and /u:/.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025107"], "description"=>"<p>A: Formant frequency deviations between modeled and recorded vowels. B: Onset formant frequency deviations between the modeled and measured consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, /l/ and /r/ in the context of the three corner vowels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "errors", "modeled", "vowels", "consonants", "optimization"], "article_id"=>682960, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Acoustic_errors_of_the_modeled_vowels_and_consonants_before_optimization_full_bars_and_after_optimization_dark_bars_/682960", "title"=>"Acoustic errors of the modeled vowels and consonants before optimization (full bars) and after optimization (dark bars).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025109"], "description"=>"<p>The solid vocal tract outlines show the vocal tract shapes for /g/ and /a/. The dashed contour shows the tongue shape at the time of closure release. , , and are the times of movement onset, closure release, and movement offset, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "tract", "shapes", "parameter", "functions", "synthesis", "syllable"], "article_id"=>682962, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vocal_tract_shapes_and_parameter_time_functions_for_the_synthesis_of_the_syllable_ga_/682962", "title"=>"Vocal tract shapes and parameter time functions for the synthesis of the syllable /ga/.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025110"], "description"=>"<p>A–C: Reference vocal tract shapes for /b/, /d/ and /g/ in the context of the corner vowels. The dashed lines indicate the contour of the tongue side. D: Calculated vocal tract targets for /b/, /d/ and /g/ in the context of the vowel /y/ according to the proposed coarticulation model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "tract", "shapes", "acoustic"], "article_id"=>682963, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modeled_vocal_tract_shapes_after_acoustic_optimization_for_b_d_and_g_in_the_context_of_a_i_u_and_y_/682963", "title"=>"Modeled vocal tract shapes (after acoustic optimization) for /b/, /d/ and /g/ in the context of /a/, /i/, /u/, and /y/.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025112"], "description"=>"<p>Identification of the items per vowel in percent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "matrix"], "article_id"=>682965, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_for_vowels_/682965", "title"=>"Confusion matrix for vowels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025113"], "description"=>"<p>Recognition rates, standard deviations (S.D.) and standard errors (S.E.) of the synthesized phonemes in percent (<i>N</i> = 20 subjects).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "rates", "synthesized"], "article_id"=>682966, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recognition_rates_of_the_synthesized_phonemes_/682966", "title"=>"Recognition rates of the synthesized phonemes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025114"], "description"=>"<p>Absolute number of responses for the consonants in the syllables for responses per syllable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "matrix"], "article_id"=>682967, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_for_consonants_/682967", "title"=>"Confusion matrix for consonants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025115"], "description"=>"<p>Target formant frequencies, onset formant frequencies (in Hz), and voice onset times (VOT, in ms) for the German vowels in the context of five consonants of the reference speaker. Each target formant frequency is the mean value of 30 samples, while each of the onset formants and VOTs are median values of six samples. Exceptions are the vowels /a:/ and /2:/, for which the formants were calculated from sustained phonemes (see text for details). The nasals /m/ and /n/ are omitted in this table, because their antiresonances prevent reliable formant measurements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "formant", "vot"], "article_id"=>682968, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_formant_frequency_and_VOT_measurements_/682968", "title"=>"Results of formant frequency and VOT measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025116"], "description"=>"<p>The errors in % indicate the deviations between the measured and simulated formant frequencies (after optimization) at voice onset. The upper row shows the errors in the context of the corner vowels, for which the consonant targets were directly optimized. The lower row shows the error in the context of all other long and short vowels except /a, i, u/, for which the consonant target was derived using the proposed coarticulation model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "acoustic", "errors"], "article_id"=>682969, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_acoustic_errors_of_consonants_/682969", "title"=>"Mean acoustic errors (%) of consonants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025117"], "description"=>"<p>For each parameter, the value range and the unit is given. Parameters without a unit specify relative values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "tract"], "article_id"=>682970, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Control_parameters_of_the_vocal_tract_model_/682970", "title"=>"Control parameters of the vocal tract model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025119", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025120", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025121", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025122", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025123", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025124", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025125", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025126", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025127", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1025128"], "description"=>"<div><p>A central challenge for articulatory speech synthesis is the simulation of realistic articulatory movements, which is critical for the generation of highly natural and intelligible speech. This includes modeling coarticulation, i.e., the context-dependent variation of the articulatory and acoustic realization of phonemes, especially of consonants. Here we propose a method to simulate the context-sensitive articulation of consonants in consonant-vowel syllables. To achieve this, the vocal tract target shape of a consonant in the context of a given vowel is derived as the weighted average of three measured and acoustically-optimized reference vocal tract shapes for that consonant in the context of the corner vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/. The weights are determined by mapping the target shape of the given context vowel into the vowel subspace spanned by the corner vowels. The model was applied for the synthesis of consonant-vowel syllables with the consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, /l/, /r/, /m/, /n/ in all combinations with the eight long German vowels. In a perception test, the mean recognition rate for the consonants in the isolated syllables was 82.4%. This demonstrates the potential of the approach for highly intelligible articulatory speech synthesis.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algorithms", "Computer modeling", "Computerized simulations", "Natural Language Processing", "software engineering", "Software tools", "signal processing", "Image processing", "Speech signal processing", "linguistics", "speech", "consonant-vowel", "coarticulation", "articulatory"], "article_id"=>682972, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060603.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modeling_Consonant_Vowel_Coarticulation_for_Articulatory_Speech_Synthesis_/682972", "title"=>"Modeling Consonant-Vowel Coarticulation for Articulatory Speech Synthesis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-16 00:49:32"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"72", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
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Relative Metric

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