Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland
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{"title"=>"Increased Atmospheric SO2 Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Karen L.", "last_name"=>"Bacon", "scopus_author_id"=>"43061028500"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire M.", "last_name"=>"Belcher", "scopus_author_id"=>"8518105900"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Haworth", "scopus_author_id"=>"22979840000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer C.", "last_name"=>"McElwain", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006719803"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23593262", "sgr"=>"84876056255", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0060614", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876056255", "pui"=>"368705921", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"9e2d59ee-99d9-374a-9c66-ff779a3ca8e2", "abstract"=>"The Triassic-Jurassic boundary (Tr-J; ∼201 Ma) is marked by a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2, rising temperatures, and ecosystem instability. This appears to have been driven by a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle due to massive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is hypothesized that this volcanism also likely delivered sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. The role that SO2 may have played in leading to ecosystem instability at the time has not received much attention. To date, little direct evidence has been presented from the fossil record capable of implicating SO2 as a cause of plant extinctions at this time. In order to address this, we performed a physiognomic leaf analysis on well-preserved fossil leaves, including Ginkgoales, bennettites, and conifers from nine plant beds that span the Tr-J boundary at Astartekløft, East Greenland. The physiognomic responses of fossil taxa were compared to the leaf size and shape variations observed in nearest living equivalent taxa exposed to simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. The modern taxa showed a statistically significant increase in leaf roundness when fumigated with SO2. A similar increase in leaf roundness was also observed in the Tr-J fossil taxa immediately prior to a sudden decrease in their relative abundances at Astartekløft. This research reveals that increases in atmospheric SO2 can likely be traced in the fossil record by analyzing physiognomic changes in fossil leaves. A pattern of relative abundance decline following increased leaf roundness for all six fossil taxa investigated supports the hypothesis that SO2 had a significant role in Tr-J plant extinctions. This finding highlights that the role of SO2 in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/increased-atmospheric-so2-detected-changes-leaf-physiognomy-across-triassicjurassic-boundary-interva", "reader_count"=>13, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020739"], "description"=>"<p><i>Lepidozamia peroffskyana</i> (A); <i>Lepidozamia hopei</i> (B); <i>Nageia nagi</i> (C); <i>Agathis australis</i> (D); <i>Ginkgo biloba</i> (E). Lower case Roman numerals indicate the simulated palaeoatmospheric treatment that the leaf grew in: (i) control; (ii) elevated SO<sub>2</sub> and (iii) Tr–J type atmosphere. The scale bar in each image is 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "physiognomy", "nearest"], "article_id"=>679584, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_leaf_physiognomy_for_each_nearest_living_equivalent_species_in_the_study_/679584", "title"=>"Examples of leaf physiognomy for each nearest living equivalent species in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:44"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020746"], "description"=>"<p>Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Ginkgo biloba</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "wallis", "mann-whitney", "pair-wise", "comparisons", "physiognomic", "simulated", "palaeoatmospheric"], "article_id"=>679591, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_and_Mann_Whitney_pair_wise_comparisons_for_each_physiognomic_trait_in_Ginkgo_biloba_in_the_different_simulated_palaeoatmospheric_treatments_/679591", "title"=>"Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Ginkgo biloba</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020747"], "description"=>"<p>Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Nageia nagi</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "wallis", "mann-whitney", "pair-wise", "comparisons", "physiognomic", "simulated", "palaeoatmospheric"], "article_id"=>679592, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_and_Mann_Whitney_pair_wise_comparisons_for_each_physiognomic_trait_in_Nageia_nagi_in_the_different_simulated_palaeoatmospheric_treatments_/679592", "title"=>"Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Nageia nagi</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020742"], "description"=>"<p>Atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> changes at Astartekløft <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Steinthorsdottir1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a> with the time of suggested likely high SO<sub>2 </sub><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Schaller1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Mander1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a> superimposed as grey (A) compared to shape factor changes as box plots and relative abundance changes as bars for each of the measured fossil taxa <i>Elatocladus</i> (B); <i>Podozamites</i> (C); <i>Baiera</i> (D); <i>Ginkgoites</i> (E); <i>Anomozamites</i> (F); <i>Pterophyllum</i> (G).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "atmospheric", "fossil", "abundance"], "article_id"=>679587, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_atmospheric_CO_2_changes_and_timing_of_potential_high_SO_2_with_measured_changes_to_fossil_leaf_relative_abundance_and_shape_factor_at_Astartekl_248_ft_/679587", "title"=>"Comparison of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> changes and timing of potential high SO<sub>2</sub> with measured changes to fossil leaf relative abundance and shape factor at Astartekløft.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020741"], "description"=>"<p>Astartekløft stratigraphic log (A) (after <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Hesselbo1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-McElwain2\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>) compared to area changes showed as box plots in the measured fossil taxa: <i>Elatocladus</i> (B); <i>Podozamites</i> (C); <i>Baiera</i> (D); <i>Ginkgoites</i> (E); <i>Anomozamites</i> (F); <i>Pterophyllum</i> (G).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "stratigraphic", "compared", "showed", "fossil"], "article_id"=>679586, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Astartekl_ft_stratigraphic_log_A_after_5_25_compared_to_area_changes_showed_as_box_plots_in_the_measured_fossil_taxa_Elatocladus_B_Podozamites_C_Baiera_D_Ginkgoites_E_Anomozamites_F_Pterophyllum_G_/679586", "title"=>"Astartekløft stratigraphic log (A) (after [5]; [25]) compared to area changes showed as box plots in the measured fossil taxa: <i>Elatocladus</i> (B); <i>Podozamites</i> (C); <i>Baiera</i> (D); <i>Ginkgoites</i> (E); <i>Anomozamites</i> (F); <i>Pterophyllum</i> (G).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020753", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020758", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020762", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020768", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020772", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020774", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020776", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020784", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020786", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020788", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020797", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020800", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020803", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020806", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020809", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020811", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020813", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020815", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020817", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020819", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020820", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020823", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020824", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020827", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020829", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020831", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020832", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020835", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020836", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020837", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020839", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020841", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020843", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020845", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020847"], "description"=>"<div><p>The Triassic–Jurassic boundary (Tr–J; ∼201 Ma) is marked by a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub>, rising temperatures, and ecosystem instability. This appears to have been driven by a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle due to massive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is hypothesized that this volcanism also likely delivered sulphur dioxide (SO<sub>2</sub>) to the atmosphere. The role that SO<sub>2</sub> may have played in leading to ecosystem instability at the time has not received much attention. To date, little direct evidence has been presented from the fossil record capable of implicating SO<sub>2</sub> as a cause of plant extinctions at this time. In order to address this, we performed a physiognomic leaf analysis on well-preserved fossil leaves, including Ginkgoales, bennettites, and conifers from nine plant beds that span the Tr–J boundary at Astartekløft, East Greenland. The physiognomic responses of fossil taxa were compared to the leaf size and shape variations observed in nearest living equivalent taxa exposed to simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. The modern taxa showed a statistically significant increase in leaf roundness when fumigated with SO<sub>2</sub>. A similar increase in leaf roundness was also observed in the Tr–J fossil taxa immediately prior to a sudden decrease in their relative abundances at Astartekløft. This research reveals that increases in atmospheric SO<sub>2</sub> can likely be traced in the fossil record by analyzing physiognomic changes in fossil leaves. A pattern of relative abundance decline following increased leaf roundness for all six fossil taxa investigated supports the hypothesis that SO<sub>2</sub> had a significant role in Tr–J plant extinctions. This finding highlights that the role of SO<sub>2</sub> in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "atmospheric", "physiognomy", "greenland"], "article_id"=>679598, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s029", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s030", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s031", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s032", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s033", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s034", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.s035"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>97, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Increased_Atmospheric_SO_2_Detected_from_Changes_in_Leaf_Physiognomy_across_the_Triassic_8211_Jurassic_Boundary_Interval_of_East_Greenland/679598", "title"=>"Increased Atmospheric SO<sub>2</sub> Detected from Changes in Leaf Physiognomy across the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary Interval of East Greenland", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020750"], "description"=>"<p>Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Lepidozamia hopei</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "wallis", "mann-whitney", "pair-wise", "comparisons", "physiognomic", "simulated", "palaeoatmospheric"], "article_id"=>679595, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_and_Mann_Whitney_pair_wise_comparisons_for_each_physiognomic_trait_in_Lepidozamia_hopei_in_the_different_simulated_palaeoatmospheric_treatments_/679595", "title"=>"Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Lepidozamia hopei</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020749"], "description"=>"<p>Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Agathis australis</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "wallis", "mann-whitney", "pair-wise", "comparisons", "physiognomic", "simulated", "palaeoatmospheric"], "article_id"=>679594, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_and_Mann_Whitney_pair_wise_comparisons_for_each_physiognomic_trait_in_Agathis_australis_in_the_different_simulated_palaeoatmospheric_treatments_/679594", "title"=>"Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney pair-wise comparisons for each physiognomic trait in <i>Agathis australis</i> in the different simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020744"], "description"=>"<p>Astartekløft stratigraphic log (A) (after <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Hesselbo1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-McElwain2\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>) compared to atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> changes (B) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Steinthorsdottir1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a> with timing of likely high SO<sub>2 </sub><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Schaller1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-Mander1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a> superimposed in grey, standing species richness (C) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614#pone.0060614-McElwain2\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> and summarized responsiveness of both fossil and NLE taxa (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "atmospheric", "compared", "fossil", "richness", "recorded", "responsiveness", "nle"], "article_id"=>679589, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_atmospheric_changes_compared_to_standing_fossil_richness_recorded_at_Astartekl_ft_and_SO_2_responsiveness_of_both_fossil_and_NLE_taxa_/679589", "title"=>"Summary of atmospheric changes compared to standing fossil richness recorded at Astartekløft and SO<sub>2</sub> responsiveness of both fossil and NLE taxa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1020740"], "description"=>"<p>The box represents the lower 25 percentile, the median value and the upper 25% percentile and the whiskers represent the range of the data. Stars represent outliers (values over twice the value of the median). <i>Lepidozamia hopei</i> (A area and B shape factor); L. <i>peroffskyana</i> (C area and D shape factor); <i>Agathis australis</i> (E area and F shape factor); <i>Nageia nagi</i> (G area and H shape factor); <i>Ginkgo biloba</i> (I area and J shape factor).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Plant science", "Botany", "Paleobotany", "Plant morphology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "Plant physiology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "paleoecology", "nearest"], "article_id"=>679585, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Karen L. Bacon", "Claire M. Belcher", "Matthew Haworth", "Jennifer C. McElwain"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060614.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Box_plots_showing_the_range_of_values_for_area_and_shape_factor_for_each_nearest_living_equivalent_species_/679585", "title"=>"Box plots showing the range of values for area and shape factor for each nearest living equivalent species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-10 02:39:45"}

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