Forest Canopy Gap Distributions in the Southern Peruvian Amazon
Publication Date
April 15, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Gregory P. Asner, James R. Kellner, Ty Kennedy Bowdoin, David E. Knapp, et al
Volume
8
Issue
4
Pages
e60875
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0060875
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23613748
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3626694
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23613748
Web of Science
000317563300009
Scopus
84876166920
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/forest-canopy-gap-distributions-southern-peruvian-amazon
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023806"], "description"=>"<p>Each zoom image is 50 ha in size. Individual crowns are visible in red colors; forest canopy gaps are indicated in blue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amazonian", "delineate", "depositional", "floodplain", "erosional", "canopy", "derived", "3-d", "zoom", "images", "differences", "dfp", "etf"], "article_id"=>681938, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Gregory P. Asner", "James R. Kellner", "Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin", "David E. Knapp", "Christopher Anderson", "Roberta E. Martin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_One_13_883_ha_Amazonian_landscape_block_12_Figure_1_showing_a_the_digital_terrain_model_with_additional_processing_to_delineate_depositional_floodplain_DFP_red_and_erosional_terra_firme_ETF_white_substrates_b_forest_canopy_height_derived_from_3_D_imaging/681938", "title"=>"One 13,883 ha Amazonian landscape (block 12;Figure 1) showing (a) the digital terrain model with additional processing to delineate depositional floodplain (DFP; red) and erosional <i>terra firme</i> (ETF; white) substrates; (b) forest canopy height derived from 3-D imaging; and zoom images to indicate differences in height and gap variation within (c) DFP and (d) ETF forests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-15 00:32:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023807"], "description"=>"<p>Power-law exponents (λ) and the number of mapped gaps (n) are also provided.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cao", "12", "canopy", "erosional", "depositional", "floodplain", "forests", "power-law", "exponents", "gap-size", "distributions", "etf", "dfp", "gaps"], "article_id"=>681939, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Gregory P. Asner", "James R. Kellner", "Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin", "David E. Knapp", "Christopher Anderson", "Roberta E. Martin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Canopy_structure_and_gap_statistics_for_CAO_mapping_block_12_including_a_the_distribution_of_canopy_height_for_erosional_terra_firme_ETF_and_depositional_floodplain_DFP_forests_see_Figure_2_b_the_vertical_distribution_of_power_law_exponents_for_each_fore/681939", "title"=>"Canopy structure and gap statistics for CAO mapping block 12 including: (a) the distribution of canopy height for erosional <i>terra firme</i> (ETF) and depositional floodplain (DFP) forests (see Figure 2); (b) the vertical distribution of power-law exponents (λ) for each forest type in block 12; and (c) the gap-size frequency distributions for ETF and DFP forests for canopy gaps at <1 m and <20 m thresholds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-15 00:32:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023808"], "description"=>"<p>The slopes of these lines are power-law exponents from the Zeta distribution that we estimated using maximum likelihood. Additional details are in Appendices S1 and S2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["size-frequency", "distributions", "canopy", "gaps", "erosional", "firme", "depositional", "floodplain", "substrates", "southwestern", "peruvian", "amazon"], "article_id"=>681940, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Gregory P. Asner", "James R. Kellner", "Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin", "David E. Knapp", "Christopher Anderson", "Roberta E. Martin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphical_representation_of_size_frequency_distributions_of_canopy_gaps_on_erosional_terra_firme_and_depositional_floodplain_substrates_in_the_southwestern_Peruvian_Amazon_at_two_height_thresholds_/681940", "title"=>"Graphical representation of size-frequency distributions of canopy gaps on erosional <i>terra</i> firme and depositional floodplain substrates in the southwestern Peruvian Amazon at two height thresholds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-15 00:32:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023809"], "description"=>"<p>Values are provided for gaps reaching to the ground level (<b>λ1</b> or ≥1 m) and for gaps found only in the upper canopy (<b>λ</b>20 or ≥20 m). Values in parentheses indicate the number of gaps mapped in each landscape.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["canopy", "forests", "depositional-floodplain", "erosional", "substrates", "zeta", "exponents", "gap-size", "distributions"], "article_id"=>681941, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Gregory P. Asner", "James R. Kellner", "Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin", "David E. Knapp", "Christopher Anderson", "Roberta E. Martin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_canopy_height_standard_deviation_of_forests_on_depositional_floodplain_DFP_and_erosional_terra_firme_ETF_substrates_see_Table_1_along_with_Zeta_distribution_power_law_exponents_955_of_the_gap_size_frequency_distributions_for_each_site_/681941", "title"=>"Mean canopy height (± standard deviation) of forests on depositional-floodplain (DFP) and erosional <i>terra firme</i> (ETF) substrates (see Table 1), along with Zeta distribution (power-law) exponents (<b>λ</b>) of the gap-size frequency distributions for each site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-15 00:32:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023810"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>terra firme</i> zones are described in terms of basic geologic, topographic and physiognomic composition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["airborne", "lidar", "blocks", "depositional-floodplain", "substrates", "958", "erosional"], "article_id"=>681942, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Gregory P. Asner", "James R. Kellner", "Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin", "David E. Knapp", "Christopher Anderson", "Roberta E. Martin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thirteen_airborne_LiDAR_study_blocks_were_used_to_map_depositional_floodplain_DFP_substrates_68_958_ha_and_a_variety_of_erosional_terra_firme_ETF_substrates_56_623_ha_/681942", "title"=>"Thirteen airborne LiDAR study blocks were used to map depositional-floodplain (DFP) substrates (68, 958 ha) and a variety of erosional <i>terra firme</i> (ETF) substrates (56,623 ha).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-15 00:32:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023811", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023812"], "description"=>"<div><p>Canopy gaps express the time-integrated effects of tree failure and mortality as well as regrowth and succession in tropical forests. Quantifying the size and spatial distribution of canopy gaps is requisite to modeling forest functional processes ranging from carbon fluxes to species interactions and biological diversity. Using high-resolution airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), we mapped and analyzed 5,877,937 static canopy gaps throughout 125,581 ha of lowland Amazonian forest in Peru. Our LiDAR sampling covered a wide range of forest physiognomies across contrasting geologic and topographic conditions, and on depositional floodplain and erosional <i>terra firme</i> substrates. We used the scaling exponent of the Zeta distribution (<b>λ</b>) as a metric to quantify and compare the negative relationship between canopy gap frequency and size across sites. Despite variable canopy height and forest type, values of <b>λ</b> were highly conservative (<b>λ</b><sub> mean</sub>  = 1.83, s  = 0.09), and little variation was observed regionally among geologic substrates and forest types, or at the landscape level comparing depositional-floodplain and erosional <i>terra firme</i> landscapes. <b>λ</b>-values less than 2.0 indicate that these forests are subjected to large gaps that reset carbon stocks when they occur. Consistency of <b>λ</b>-values strongly suggests similarity in the mechanisms of canopy failure across a diverse array of lowland forests in southwestern Amazonia.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["canopy", "distributions", "peruvian"], "article_id"=>681943, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Gregory P. Asner", "James R. Kellner", "Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin", "David E. Knapp", "Christopher Anderson", "Roberta E. Martin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_Canopy_Gap_Distributions_in_the_Southern_Peruvian_Amazon_/681943", "title"=>"Forest Canopy Gap Distributions in the Southern Peruvian Amazon", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-15 00:32:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1023803"], "description"=>"<p>The upper inset shows location of the study region within Peru. The lower inset shows the LiDAR mapping blocks against a map of aboveground carbon density (ACD; Mg C ha<sup>−1</sup>), which integrates regional variation in geology, topography and canopy physiognomy <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875#pone.0060875-Asner4\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cao", "lidar", "blocks", "acquired", "peruvian"], "article_id"=>681935, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Gregory P. Asner", "James R. Kellner", "Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin", "David E. Knapp", "Christopher Anderson", "Roberta E. Martin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060875.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thirteen_CAO_LiDAR_mapping_blocks_were_acquired_in_the_southern_Peruvian_Amazon_/681935", "title"=>"Thirteen CAO LiDAR mapping blocks were acquired in the southern Peruvian Amazon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-15 00:32:15"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[290, 478, 601, 716, 816, 914, 1016, 1112, 1203, 1285, 1373, 1451, 1516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecological environments", "average_usage"=>[261, 401]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecosystems", "average_usage"=>[284, 427]}]}
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