Correlates between Feeding Ecology and Mercury Levels in Historical and Modern Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus)
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{"title"=>"Correlates between Feeding Ecology and Mercury Levels in Historical and Modern Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Natalia", "last_name"=>"Bocharova", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188820154"}, {"first_name"=>"Gabriele", "last_name"=>"Treu", "scopus_author_id"=>"57119696600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gábor Árpád", "last_name"=>"Czirják", "scopus_author_id"=>"36972142300"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver", "last_name"=>"Krone", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701717105"}, {"first_name"=>"Volker", "last_name"=>"Stefanski", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701920587"}, {"first_name"=>"Gudrun", "last_name"=>"Wibbelt", "scopus_author_id"=>"23468332600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ester Rut", "last_name"=>"Unnsteinsdóttir", "scopus_author_id"=>"26030656100"}, {"first_name"=>"Páll", "last_name"=>"Hersteinsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602546105"}, {"first_name"=>"Gereon", "last_name"=>"Schares", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004165860"}, {"first_name"=>"Lilia", "last_name"=>"Doronina", "scopus_author_id"=>"57190883086"}, {"first_name"=>"Mikhail", "last_name"=>"Goltsman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602289750"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex D.", "last_name"=>"Greenwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102457657"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84877096562", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0060879", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368853075", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23671561", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877096562"}, "id"=>"17ff17fb-b1b4-3a25-86c8-812f49b029bb", "abstract"=>"Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/correlates-between-feeding-ecology-mercury-levels-historical-modern-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053487"], "description"=>"<p>Localities from which samples were derived are shown by black dots in panel A. The number of samples taken at each Mednyi Island location site vary by dot size as indicated. A refers to the Commander Island and B Iceland which are then shown relative to their circumpolar location. The historical samples cannot be assigned to a precise locality within a geographic region Commander Islands. Panel B shows an image representing two Mednyi Island foxes demonstrating different health status. The fox on the left (red ear tag) is underweight with poor coat condition and the fox on the right (blue ear tag) presents good general health condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "localities", "mednyi", "arctic"], "article_id"=>697701, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sampling_localities_and_health_condition_of_Mednyi_Island_arctic_foxes_/697701", "title"=>"Sampling localities and health condition of Mednyi Island arctic foxes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053488"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots indicate median (solid line) and mean (black diamond) of the THg values. The ranges of values are shown as dashed lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "thg", "arctic", "foxes", "originating"], "article_id"=>697702, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Levels_of_THg_mg_kg_d_w_in_hair_of_arctic_foxes_originating_from_different_ecotypes_/697702", "title"=>"Levels of THg (mg/kg d.w.) in hair of arctic foxes originating from different ecotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053490"], "description"=>"<p>The data is displayed as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879#pone-0060879-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "thg", "juvenile", "arctic", "foxes", "islands"], "article_id"=>697704, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_THg_in_hair_mg_kg_d_w_between_adult_and_juvenile_arctic_foxes_from_the_Commander_Islands_and_Iceland_/697704", "title"=>"Differences in THg in hair (mg/kg d.w.) between adult and juvenile arctic foxes from the Commander Islands and Iceland.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053497"], "description"=>"<p>Data for adult (A) and juvenile (B) foxes were analysed separately by ecotype. The data is displayed as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879#pone-0060879-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "differences", "thg", "arctic", "foxes", "originating"], "article_id"=>697711, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_differences_in_levels_of_THg_in_hair_mg_kg_d_w_of_arctic_foxes_originating_from_different_ecotypes_/697711", "title"=>"Age differences in levels of THg in hair (mg/kg d.w.) of arctic foxes originating from different ecotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053499"], "description"=>"<p>Summary statistics of the concentration (mg/kg d.w.) of total mercury in hair of arctic foxes from the Commander Islands and Iceland by ecotype and age.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "mercury", "arctic", "foxes", "islands", "iceland", "ecotype"], "article_id"=>697713, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_of_the_concentration_mg_kg_d_w_of_total_mercury_in_hair_of_arctic_foxes_from_the_Commander_Islands_and_Iceland_by_ecotype_and_age_/697713", "title"=>"Summary statistics of the concentration (mg/kg d.w.) of total mercury in hair of arctic foxes from the Commander Islands and Iceland by ecotype and age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053500"], "description"=>"<p>n.d.: no data available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "hg", "prey", "samples", "mednyi", "arctic"], "article_id"=>697714, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Level_of_total_Hg_mg_kg_d_w_in_the_prey_samples_of_the_Mednyi_island_arctic_foxes_/697714", "title"=>"Level of total Hg (mg/kg d.w.) in the prey samples of the Mednyi island arctic foxes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053501"], "description"=>"<p>Tests used, number of samples and test results are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "pathogen", "mednyi"], "article_id"=>697715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_pathogen_screening_in_Mednyi_Island_population_/697715", "title"=>"Results of pathogen screening in Mednyi Island population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053502", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053504", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053505", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053507", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053508", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1053509"], "description"=>"<div><p>Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (<i>Vulpes lagopus</i>) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype (‘coastal’ or ‘inland’) for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Coastal ecology", "Ecological environments", "ecosystems", "toxicology", "Immunotoxicology", "Toxic agents", "Zoology", "Parasitology", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary pathology", "Veterinary toxicology", "correlates", "feeding", "mercury", "arctic", "foxes"], "article_id"=>697716, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Natalia Bocharova", "Gabriele Treu", "Gábor Árpád Czirják", "Oliver Krone", "Volker Stefanski", "Gudrun Wibbelt", "Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir", "Pall Hersteinsson", "Gereon Schares", "Lilia Doronina", "Mikhail Goltsman", "Alex D. Greenwood"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060879.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Correlates_between_Feeding_Ecology_and_Mercury_Levels_in_Historical_and_Modern_Arctic_Foxes_Vulpes_lagopus_/697716", "title"=>"Correlates between Feeding Ecology and Mercury Levels in Historical and Modern Arctic Foxes (<i>Vulpes lagopus</i>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-06 02:08:36"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Environmental chemistry", "average_usage"=>[203, 348, 442, 542, 627, 713, 771, 830, 903, 967, 1053, 1107, 1155]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[273, 476, 611, 714, 821, 911, 1005, 1103, 1201, 1287, 1388, 1478, 1557]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}]}
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