Partial Altitudinal Migration of a Himalayan Forest Pheasant
Publication Date
April 26, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Nawang Norbu, Martin C. Wikelski, David S. Wilcove, Jesko Partecke, et al
Volume
8
Issue
4
Pages
e60979
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0060979
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23658608
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637220
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23658608
Web of Science
000318343700008
Scopus
84876866040
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/partial-altitudinal-migration-himalayan-forest-pheasant
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044495"], "description"=>"<p>Location of study area bounded by rectangular box (A[ii]). Light grey areas show protected areas in Bhutan and dark grey areas show biological corridors. Land cover, locations for 1 resident (black circles) and migratory routes for 4 migratory individuals (3 females and 1 male [green squares and line] within the study area (B)). A tagged male (C) and a tagged female (D) being released. Travel route of a male migrant shown in green and female migrant shown in yellow (B) overlaid onto a photograph of the actual mountain location (E).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "bhutan", "thrumshingla"], "article_id"=>692373, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_Bhutan_A_i_and_Thrumshingla_National_Park_in_Bhutan_shown_in_green_A_ii_/692373", "title"=>"Location of Bhutan (A[i]) and Thrumshingla National Park in Bhutan shown in green (A[ii]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044482"], "description"=>"<p>Filled symbols represent birds tagged in 2010 and open symbols show birds tagged in 2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "migratory", "sedentary"], "article_id"=>692369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_of_body_mass_kg_by_sex_to_migratory_status_where_8216_0_8217_is_sedentary_and_8216_1_8217_is_migratory_/692369", "title"=>"Relationship of body mass (kg) by sex to migratory status, where ‘0’ is sedentary and ‘1’ is migratory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044477"], "description"=>"<p>Arrows show direction of movement, and ‘Summer’ and ‘Winter’ denote summer breeding and wintering grounds. Elevation profiles (B) for 5 tragopans showing the initiation of migration (closed triangle) and end of migration (closed square). Individuals are identified by small letters ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’, ‘e’ on both (A) and (B). Temperature profiles are for October to December 2009 and January 2010 at 2300 (black line) and 2900 (blue line) masl.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "patterns", "tragopans"], "article_id"=>692367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Migration_patterns_for_8_individual_different_colours_tragopans_A_/692367", "title"=>"Migration patterns for 8 individual (different colours) tragopans (A).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044481"], "description"=>"<p>Migrants have been further classified into those crossing multiple mountains (Pattern 1), descending longitudinally (Pattern 2) [i.e. travelling parallel to mountain ridges], and those climbing to higher elevations in winter (Pattern 3). Hatches indicate elevation change by individuals during fall migration. ‘+200’ denotes individuals who climbed higher in winter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "individuals", "classified", "migrants", "residents"], "article_id"=>692368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_No_of_individuals_classified_as_migrants_or_residents_Pattern_4_/692368", "title"=>"No of individuals classified as migrants or residents (Pattern 4).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044502"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Altitudinal migration systems are poorly understood. Recent advances in animal telemetry which enables tracking of migrants across their annual cycles will help illustrate unknown migration patterns and test existing hypotheses. Using telemetry, we show the existence of a complex partial altitudinal migration system in the Himalayas and discuss our findings to help better understand partial and altitudinal migration.</p> <p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>We used GPS/accelerometer tags to monitor the migration of Satyr tragopan (<i>Tragopan satyra</i>) in the Bhutan Himalayas. We tagged 38 birds from 2009 – 2011 and found that tragopans are partially migratory. Fall migration lasted from the 3<sup>rd</sup> week of September till the 3<sup>rd</sup> week of November with migrants traveling distances ranging from 1.25 km to 13.5 km over 1 to 32 days. Snowfall did not influence the onset of migration. Return migration started by the 1<sup>st</sup> week of March and lasted until the 1<sup>st</sup> week of April. Individuals returned within 4 to 10 days and displayed site fidelity. One bird switched from being a migrant to a non-migrant. Tragopans displayed three main migration patterns: 1) crossing multiple mountains; 2) descending/ascending longitudinally; 3) moving higher up in winter and lower down in summer. More females migrated than males; but, within males, body size was not a factor for predicting migrants.</p> <p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>Our observations of migrants traversing over multiple mountain ridges and even of others climbing to higher elevations is novel. We support the need for existing hypotheses to consider how best to explain inter- as well as intra-sexual differences. Most importantly, having shown that the patterns of an altitudinal migration system are complex and not a simple up and down slope movement, we hope our findings will influence the way altitudinal migrations are perceived and thereby contribute to a better understanding of how species may respond to climate change.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "altitudinal", "himalayan"], "article_id"=>692377, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Partial_Altitudinal_Migration_of_a_Himalayan_Forest_Pheasant_/692377", "title"=>"Partial Altitudinal Migration of a Himalayan Forest Pheasant", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044500"], "description"=>"<p>Number of individuals by year and sex classified as migrants and residents and birds for which data could not be obtained.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "individuals", "classified", "migrants", "residents", "birds"], "article_id"=>692375, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_individuals_by_year_and_sex_classified_as_migrants_and_residents_and_birds_for_which_data_could_not_be_obtained_/692375", "title"=>"Number of individuals by year and sex classified as migrants and residents and birds for which data could not be obtained.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044501"], "description"=>"<p>Model estimates for effect of body mass and body size index (mass/tarsus length) on migratory status of males.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "estimates", "migratory"], "article_id"=>692376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_estimates_for_effect_of_body_mass_and_body_size_index_mass_tarsus_length_on_migratory_status_of_males_/692376", "title"=>"Model estimates for effect of body mass and body size index (mass/tarsus length) on migratory status of males.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044489"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed horizontal grey lines (B) show snowfall days in the study area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "dates", "migrations", "2010", "2011", "2012"], "article_id"=>692371, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Departure_dates_for_fall_migrations_for_2009_2010_and_2011_A_and_return_migrations_for_2011_and_2012_B_against_temperature_profiles_/692371", "title"=>"Departure dates for fall migrations for 2009, 2010 and 2011 (A) and return migrations for 2011 and 2012 (B) against temperature profiles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1044485"], "description"=>"<p>Boxplots for distance migrated (A), change in elevation (B) and duration of migration (C) by sex (n = 24, females  = 11 and males  = 13).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Population biology", "population genetics", "natural selection", "Population ecology", "Zoology", "Ornithology", "migrated", "elevation", "duration", "females", "males"], "article_id"=>692370, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nawang Norbu", "Martin C. Wikelski", "David S. Wilcove", "Jesko Partecke", "Ugyen", "Ugyen Tenzin", "Sherub", "Tshering Tempa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060979.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplots_for_distance_migrated_A_change_in_elevation_B_and_duration_of_migration_C_by_sex_n_8202_8202_24_females_8202_8202_11_and_males_8202_8202_13_/692370", "title"=>"Boxplots for distance migrated (A), change in elevation (B) and duration of migration (C) by sex (n = 24, females  = 11 and males  = 13).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-26 00:39:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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