The Double Pedigree: A Method for Studying Culturally and Genetically Inherited Behavior in Tandem
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{"title"=>"The Double Pedigree: A Method for Studying Culturally and Genetically Inherited Behavior in Tandem", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Etienne", "last_name"=>"Danchin", "scopus_author_id"=>"35304529700"}, {"first_name"=>"Benoit", "last_name"=>"Pujol", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603772646"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard H.", "last_name"=>"Wagner", "scopus_author_id"=>"35619279700"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877904076", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0061254", "sgr"=>"84877904076", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23700404", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368942636"}, "id"=>"6bf561b7-2b8b-374a-ab85-d5525cb9bf87", "abstract"=>"Transgenerational sources of biological variation have been at the center of evolutionary studies ever since Darwin and Wallace identified natural selection. This is because evolution can only operate on traits whose variation is transmitted, i.e. traits that are heritable. The discovery of genetic inheritance has led to a semantic shift, resulting in the tendency to consider that only genes are inherited across generations. Today, however, concepts of heredity are being broadened again to integrate the accruing evidence of non-genetic inheritance, and many evolutionary biologists are calling for the inclusion of non-genetic inheritance into an inclusive evolutionary synthesis. Here, we focus on social heredity and its role in the inheritance of behavioral traits. We discuss quantitative genetics methods that might allow us to disentangle genetic and non-genetic transmission in natural populations with known pedigrees. We then propose an experimental design based on cross-fostering among animal cultures, environments and families that has the potential to partition inherited phenotypic variation into socially (i.e. culturally) and genetically inherited components. This approach builds towards a new conceptual framework based on the use of an extended version of the animal model of quantitative genetics to integrate genetic and cultural components of behavioral inheritance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/double-pedigree-method-studying-culturally-genetically-inherited-behavior-tandem", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Lebanon"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>2, "Switzerland"=>3, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1549836"], "description"=>"<p>Note that L<sup>A</sup> and L<sup>B</sup> are siblings that were cross-fostered between cultures A and B. <i>Superscript</i>: cultures; <i>subscript</i> family of origin, plus identity of the offspring. <i>Black arrows</i>: genetic genealogy; <i>Blue arrows</i>: cultural genealogy. Cross-fostering should be performed as early in life as possible to avoid any social influence. According to this protocol, half of the offspring remain in their nests of origin (NL<sub>X1</sub> and LP<sub>Y2</sub>). Their genetic (black) and cultural (blue) genealogies are thus confounded (arrows labeled 1). In contrast, for the other half of the offspring (NL<sub>X2</sub> and LP<sub>Y1</sub>) the cross-fostering uncouples the genetic (black) from the cultural (blue) genealogy (arrows labeled 2). This allows us to differentiate the respective roles of genetic versus cultural inheritance in resemblance. The comparison of cross-fostered versus non-cross-fostered siblings allows the partitioning of variance between genetic and cultural effects. It is thus crucial to perform partial cross-fostering in which only some of the siblings are cross-fostered.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "genetics", "Population biology", "Zoology", "cross-fostering", "uncouples", "pedigree", "apportion", "components"], "article_id"=>1070153, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Étienne Danchin", "Benoit Pujol", "Richard H. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061254.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_cross_fostering_experiment_uncouples_the_cultural_from_the_genetic_pedigree_to_apportion_the_genetic_and_cultural_components_of_behavioral_traits_/1070153", "title"=>"A cross-fostering experiment uncouples the cultural from the genetic pedigree to apportion the genetic and cultural components of behavioral traits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-20 08:52:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1549853"], "description"=>"<p>This can be simplified in the lab by providing only one type of environment. Each column represents one family and hence one set of parental genes reorganized in different individual genotypes. The colored boxes represent different environments. O<sub>1</sub> and O<sub>2</sub> are siblings. This illustrates the possibility of linking families across environments. Squares and circles are male and female parents and hexagons are offspring. In this design we consider that there are two identified cultures (e.g. song dialects or languages). Sample sizes are set at two which is the minimum necessary to account for residual variance. Two-way arrows indicate partial cross-fostering among environments, families and cultures. The arrows starting and ending on the same family corresponds to controls for the effect of the manipulation where eggs or young are handled, moved over a comparable period of time, then put back in their original nest or habitat. In this cross-foster design all combinations of environment, genotype and culture can be created and replicated. Ideally, some of the cross-fosterings are performed within the same culture/environment/family to test for the manipulation effect. The cross-fosters are then used to build the matrix of cultural distances among individuals, which describes the cultural pedigree (see text). An advantage of the animal model is that it is robust enough to cope with unbalanced designs resulting from the unavoidable death of some individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "genetics", "Population biology", "Zoology", "pedigree", "interactions"], "article_id"=>1070169, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Étienne Danchin", "Benoit Pujol", "Richard H. Wagner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061254.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_ideal_double_pedigree_protocol_to_study_the_interactions_between_genotype_environment_and_culture_/1070169", "title"=>"The ideal double pedigree protocol to study the interactions between genotype, environment and culture.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-20 08:52:00"}

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Relative Metric

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