Macrofaunal Responses to Edges Are Independent of Habitat-Heterogeneity in Experimental Landscapes
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{"title"=>"Macrofaunal Responses to Edges Are Independent of Habitat-Heterogeneity in Experimental Landscapes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Miguel G.", "last_name"=>"Matias", "scopus_author_id"=>"18634963600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ross A.", "last_name"=>"Coleman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403205810"}, {"first_name"=>"Dieter F.", "last_name"=>"Hochuli", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602227360"}, {"first_name"=>"Antony J.", "last_name"=>"Underwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"56058162000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23593471", "sgr"=>"84875981372", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0061349", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875981372", "pui"=>"368695783", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"9f74b070-e843-3692-a188-b9c94fb8bffb", "abstract"=>"Despite edges being common features of many natural habitats, there is little general understanding of the ways assemblages respond to them. Every edge between two contrasting habitats has characteristics governed by the composition of adjoining habitats and/or by the nature of any transitions between them. To develop better explanatory theory, we examined the extent to which edges act independently of the composition of the surrounding landscape and to which transitions between different types of habitats affect assemblages. Using experimental landscapes, we measured the responses of assemblages of marine molluscs colonising different experimental landscapes constructed with different compositions (i.e. different types of habitats within the landscape) and different types of transitions between habitats (i.e. sharp vs gradual). Edge effects (i.e. proximity to the edge of the landscape) were independent of the internal composition of experimental landscape; fewer species were found near the edges of landscapes. These reductions may be explained by differences in differential larval settlement between edges and interiors of experimental landscapes. We also found that the sharpness of transitions influenced the magnitude of interactions in the different types of habitats in experimental landscapes, most probably due to the increased number of species in areas of transition between two habitats. Our experiments allowed the effects of composition and transitions between habitats to be disentangled from those of proximity to edges of landscapes. Understanding and making predictions about the responses by species to edges depends on understanding not only the nature of transitions across boundaries, but also the landscape in which the edges are embedded.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/macrofaunal-responses-edges-independent-habitatheterogeneity-experimental-landscapes", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Peru"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1018996"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Monotypic sparse and (b) monotypic dense; (c) sharp transition between dense and sparse and (d) gradual transition between dense and sparse. The smaller squares in that run across the experimental landscapes represent eight 5×5 cm pieces of artificial turf that were sampled. The final shape of the experimental landscapes was rectangular (40×45 cm; see Fig. 1) to ensure that all eight samples had the same distance to the remaining edges of the landscape (i.e. 20 cm). The area of experimental landscapes was 1800 cm<sup>2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landscapes", "habitats"], "article_id"=>678181, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Miguel G. Matias", "Ross A. Coleman", "Dieter F. Hochuli", "Antony J. Underwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_landscapes_of_different_habitats_and_with_different_transitions_/678181", "title"=>"Experimental landscapes of different habitats and with different transitions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-08 02:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1018998"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (±SE) numbers of species as a function of distance from edge of habitat (0–5, 5–10, 10–15 and 15–20 cm). For clarity in presenting the effect of distance from edge of habitat, the numbers of species were averaged across 2 habitat types (Sparse and Dense) and 3 replicate experimental landscapes in each site (1: •; 2: ○). Letters indicate means that are significantly different (SNK at <i>P</i> <0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["edges", "numbers"], "article_id"=>678183, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Miguel G. Matias", "Ross A. Coleman", "Dieter F. Hochuli", "Antony J. Underwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_edges_on_numbers_of_species_/678183", "title"=>"Effects of edges on numbers of species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-08 02:16:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1019000"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (±SE) numbers of species in experimental landscapes with different composition (Sparse, Dense, Sharp and Gradual). Numbers of species are averaged across 2 sites and 3 replicate experimental landscapes. In (b), bars with different patterns indicate numbers of species in different types of turfs in landscapes of different composition: sparse (clear), dense (solid) and intermediate (striped) turfs. Letters indicate significant differences between means (SNK at <i>P</i><0.05; analyses in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349#pone-0061349-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landscapes", "numbers"], "article_id"=>678185, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Miguel G. Matias", "Ross A. Coleman", "Dieter F. Hochuli", "Antony J. Underwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_composition_of_experimental_landscapes_on_numbers_of_species_/678185", "title"=>"Effects of composition of experimental landscapes on numbers of species", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-08 02:16:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1019001"], "description"=>"<p>. nMDS ordination of Bray-Curtis distances of assemblages colonizing each experimental landscape with different composition using densities of species from <i>n</i> = 3 replicate patches in each site (1 or 2). Symbols indicate different types of landscapes: Sparse (□), Dense (○), Sharp (•) and Gradual (▪). Pair-wise tests of significance of differences between assemblages are in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349#pone-0061349-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3d</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landscapes", "benthic"], "article_id"=>678186, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Miguel G. Matias", "Ross A. Coleman", "Dieter F. Hochuli", "Antony J. Underwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_composition_of_experimental_landscapes_on_benthic_assemblages_/678186", "title"=>"Effects of composition of experimental landscapes on benthic assemblages", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-08 02:16:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1019004"], "description"=>"<p>Site is a random factor with two levels; Composition is a fixed factor with four levels (Sparse, Dense, Sharp or Gradual). Distance is fixed with four levels (0–5, 5–10, 10–15 and 15–20 cm from edge of experimental landscapes). Site is a random factor with 2 levels; Patch is a random factor nested in Composition and Site and has three levels; <i>n</i> = 2 turfs sampled at each distance in each treatment. Non-significant terms at <i>P ></i>0.25 that were not pooled, did not change the outcome of any tests relevant for the hypotheses being tested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["numbers"], "article_id"=>678189, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Miguel G. Matias", "Ross A. Coleman", "Dieter F. Hochuli", "Antony J. Underwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_numbers_of_species_means_in_Fig_2_to_test_effects_of_distance_from_the_edge_and_of_composition_of_experimental_landscapes_/678189", "title"=>"Analysis of numbers of species (means in Fig. 2) to test effects of distance from the edge and of composition of experimental landscapes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-08 02:16:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1019005"], "description"=>"*<p> indicates <i>P</i><0.05 and ** indicates <i>P</i><0.005</p><p>Site is random with two levels; Composition is a fixed factor four levels in a); three levels in b) and c); <i>n</i> = 3. Entries are the mean distances between each pair in each test of Composition, with bold entries with asterisks being significant at <i>P</i> = 0.05. Multivariate patterns for entire habitats are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349#pone-0061349-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["examining", "bray-curtis", "distances", "samples", "assemblages", "landscapes", "sparse", "turfs", "corresponding", "pair-wise", "comparisons"], "article_id"=>678190, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Miguel G. Matias", "Ross A. Coleman", "Dieter F. Hochuli", "Antony J. Underwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PERMANOVA_examining_Bray_Curtis_distances_between_and_within_samples_of_assemblages_in_entire_landscapes_a_sparse_turfs_b_or_dense_turfs_c_in_experimental_landscapes_and_corresponding_pair_wise_comparisons_of_levels_of_factor_Composition_/678190", "title"=>"PERMANOVA examining Bray-Curtis distances between and within samples of assemblages in entire landscapes (a), sparse turfs (b) or dense turfs (c) in experimental landscapes and corresponding pair-wise comparisons of levels of factor Composition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-08 02:16:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1019006"], "description"=>"†<p> Tested against the pooled term: Residual+C×S.</p><p>Composition is a fixed factor with four levels in a) and three levels in b) and c). Site is random with two levels; <i>n</i>  = 3. All four variables are averages calculated for each experimental landscape. Means and SNK tests are in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349#pone-0061349-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landscapes", "sparse", "turfs"], "article_id"=>678191, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Miguel G. Matias", "Ross A. Coleman", "Dieter F. Hochuli", "Antony J. Underwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061349.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_composition_of_experimental_landscapes_on_a_number_of_species_i_e_across_entire_landscape_b_average_number_of_species_in_sparse_turfs_Sparse_Sharp_and_Gradual_and_c_in_dense_turfs_Dense_Sharp_and_Gradual_/678191", "title"=>"Effects of composition of experimental landscapes on (a) number of species (i.e. across entire landscape), (b) average number of species in sparse turfs (Sparse, Sharp and Gradual), and (c) in dense turfs (Dense, Sharp and Gradual).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-08 02:16:31"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[290, 478, 601, 716, 816, 914, 1016, 1112, 1203, 1285, 1373, 1451, 1516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Plant science", "average_usage"=>[269, 451, 577, 699, 812, 922, 1019, 1126, 1225, 1309, 1404, 1493, 1563]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Species interactions", "average_usage"=>[299, 444, 550, 634, 721, 792, 859, 935, 1028, 1088, 1168, 1242, 1303, 1346]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Habitats", "average_usage"=>[297, 459, 571, 677, 787, 867, 962, 1045, 1121, 1208, 1289, 1372, 1442]}]}
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